AAMA - American Architectural
Manufacturers Association is a trade association of
firms engaged in the manufacturing and sale of architectural
building components and related products.
Absorptance - The ratio of radiant
energy absorbed to total incident radiant energy in
a glazing system.
Acoustic Windows - Windows used
to help reduce the amount of sound that enters the
Acrylic - A general purpose glazing
material with excellent optical clarity, weather durability,
good chemical resistance and thermoformability.
Active Leaf - Usually the first
operating leaf in a door having a pair of leaves;
the leaf to which the latching or locking mechanism
ADA Threshold - A wheelchair-accessible
door threshold. This type of threshold is not to exceed
3/4" in height for exterior sliding doors or
1/2" for other types of doors.
Aerogel - A microporous, transparent
silicate foam used as a glazing cavity fill material,
offering possible U-values below 0.10 BTU/(h-sq ft-°F)
or 0.56 W/(sq m-°C).
AIA - American Institute of Architects.
AIF - Acoustic Insulation Factor,
a sound-transmission measure used in Canada.
Air Infiltration - The amount doors
(the lower, the better) of air leaking in and out
of a building through cracks in walls, windows.
Air Leakage - The volume of air
which flows through a closed window or door in a given
length of time as a result of the difference in air
pressure on its opposite faces.
Allowable Stress - The maximum unit
stress permitted under working loads by codes and
Alloy - A composition of two or
more metals to obtain a desired property.
Ambient Temperature - Temperature
at a given set of environmental conditions. Typically,
the surrounding localized air temperature.
Anchor - Any device used to secure
a building part or component to adjoining construction
or to a supporting member.
Anneal - To soften a metal piece
and remove internal stresses by heating the piece
to its critical temperature and allowing it to cool
Annealed Glass - Glass that has
not been heat-treated and is essentially strain free;
often referred to as " float glass."
Annealing - Heating above the critical
or recrystallization temperature, then controlled
cooling of metal, glass, or other materials to eliminate
the effects of cold-working, relieving internal stresses,
ductility, or other properties.
Anodic Coating - The surface finish
resulting from anodizing. Coatings may be produced
by clear, integral color or electrolytically deposited
color processes. Also see Anodize.
Anodize - A process that provides
a hard durable oxide film on the surface of aluminum.
This coating can produce coloring and finishing that
both protects and beautifies the aluminum.
ANSI - American National Standards
Institute is an independent association of trade organizations,
technical societies, professional groups and consumer
organizations which establishes and publishes standards
at the national level.
Apron - The finished board placed
against the wall surface immediately below a window
Arch Window - Half-circle picture
Argon - An inert, non-toxic gas
used in insulating glass units to reduce heat transfer.
ASCE - American Society of Civil
ASHRAE - American Society of Heating,
Refrigeration and Air Conditioning Engineers.
ASTM - American Society for Testing
and Materials. A nonprofit organization that establishes
standard tests and specifications for construction
materials; such tests and specifications usually are
referred to by the abbreviation ASTM followed by a
Astragal - The center member of
a double door, which is attached to the fixed or inactive
Attenuation - Reduction in strength
of sound measured in decibels (dBs).
Automatic Operator - Power-operated,
door-activated device and control, actuated by approaching
traffic or remote switch.
Awning Window - A type of window
with a top-hinged sash that swings out at the bottom.
Back Bedding - The process of adhering
and sealing glass to a frame or sash.
Backer Rod - A round, compressible
material, either open or closed cell, that’s placed
into voids between materials to insulate and allow
a backing for the application of sealant.
Baffle - A material used in windows
and doors to impede the flow of water or air into
the framing system through weep slots.
Balance - A mechanical device (normally
spring-loaded) used in single- and double-hung windows
as a means of counterbalancing the weight of the sash
Balance Shoe - Nylon hardware that
slides in hung window jambs and connects the balance
with the sash.
Bay Window - A composite of three
windows, usually made up of a large center unit and
two flanking units at 30- or 45-degree angles to the
wall. A bay projects from the wall of the structure.
Bead - A molding or stop placed
around a window frame to hold the glass in place by
Bearing Wall - A wall that supports
loads in addition to its own weight.
Billet - A cylindrical-shaped section
of aluminum alloy used as the starting stock in an
Bite - Distance by which the inner
edge of the aluminum frame glazing pocket or stop
overlaps the glass. Also termed purchase, edge cover
Bituminous Paint - A low-cost paint
containing asphalt or coal tar used to isolate aluminum
from mortar, concrete or masonry.
Block Frame - Non-finned frame that
can be used as new or retrofit installation in a block
(concrete) wall application or as a wood window replacement
BOCA National Codes - A series of
performance-oriented model A series of performance-oriented
model codes responsive to the latest advancements
in construction technology. Building Officials and
Code Administrators (BOCA) International, Inc. was
founded in 1915. Area of influence: Northeast region
of the U.S. Replaced by ICC codes.
Bond - The joining together of building
materials to ensure solidity.
Bond Breaker - A release type of
material used to prevent adhesion of the sealant to
the back-up material.
Bottom Rail - The bottom horizontal
member of a window sash.
Bow Window - A composite of four
or more window units in a radial or bow formation
gently curved contour. Bow windows also project from
the walls of the structure.
Brake Metal Shape - Aluminum sheet
stock bent or "broken" to desired shape,
as required by specific job conditions, on a power
or manual press brake. This shape is often used to
cover conditions which cannot be covered by a stock
extruded aluminum shape.
Brick Molding - A standard trim
piece that covers the gap between the window frame
Btu (B.T.U.) - An abbreviation for
British Thermal Unit, the heat required to increase
the temperature of one pound of water one-degree Fahrenheit.
Bull Nose - Convex rounding of a
member, such as an extruded aluminum snap-on radius
face cover used on aluminum-curtain walls.
Butt Hinge - A hinge designed for
application to the edge of a door consisting of two
rectangular metal plates joined together with a pin.
Butt Hung Door - A door hung on
Butt Joint - A meeting of two members
Butyl - A synthetic rubber formed
by the co-polymerization of isobutylene with isoprene.
It is used as a sealant and as an architectural glazing
Cantilever - A beam, girder or truss
overhanging one or more supports.
Casement handing - Side that the
hinge in on. For residential windows, the hinge side
is looking from the outside. For commercial windows,
the hinge side is looking from the inside.
Casement Window - The whole sash
swings in or out from the jamb of the window and it
either uses a crank-out system or a friction system
of operation. It’s the best window choice for catching
breezes and providing cross-ventilation.
Casing - Exposed molding or framing
around a window or door, on either the inside or outside
to cover the space between the window frame or jamb
and the wall.
Caulking - Sealants used to seal
fixed and movable construction joints to prevent infiltration.
Center of Glass - All-glass area
of a window except that within 2.5" (10cm) from
the edge of the glass – used in measuring and calculating
glazing performance such as R-values and U-values.
CFM - Cubic Feet per Minute.
Chamfer - To bevel a sharp external
edge. A beveled edge.
Check Rail - The bottom horizontal
member of the upper sash and the top horizontal member
of the lower sash which meet at the middle of a double-hung
Cladding - An exterior covering
or skin applied to framing or a structure for aesthetic
or protective purposes.
Clerestory Window - A window placed
vertically in a wall above one's line of vision to
provide natural light -- often at the intersection
of two offset roof planes.
CMR - Centerline of Meeting Rail
– a reference line used to locate integral mullions
and/or size oriel (unequal) sash, e.g., "the
height of the lower sash shall be 22" from the
frame sill to CMR."
Column - A structural vertical compression
member. It is usually a long and slender post or pillar.
Compatibility - The ability of two
or more materials to exist in close and permanent
association for an indefinite period with no adverse
effect on one another.
Composite Frame - A frame consisting
of two or more materials; For example, a white interior
with a beige exterior.
Compression Gasket - A method of
securing the glass into the aluminum frame glazing
pocket by using a soft gasket on one side of the glass
and a firm, dense gasket called a wedge on the other.
Also see Wedge Glazing.
Condensation - The change of a gas
to a liquid state. Because warm air can hold more
water vapor than cold air, as warm air cools, its
ability to hold water vapor is reduced. Excess moisture
condenses on the warm side of glass. E.g., condensation
on the outside of a glass of ice water.
Condensation Gutter - A trough for
carrying off condensed or infiltrated water; this
may be drained to the exterior or allowed to evaporate.
Condensation Resistance F - Condensation
Resistance Factor (CRF) measures the ability of a
product to resist the formation of condensation on
the interior surface of the product.
Conduction - A process of heat transfer
whereby heat moves directly through a material by
molecular agitation. The handle of a cast-iron frying
pan becomes hot due to conduction.
Conductivity - The transfer of heat
through a given material – see U-value which is the
measure of conductivity, the inverse of R-value.
Convection - A heat-transfer process
involving motion in a fluid (such as air) caused by
the difference in density of the fluid and the action
of gravity. Convection affects heat transfer from
the glass surface to room air as well as between two
panes of glass.
Cope - To notch an aluminum-framing
member such as a channel, etc. so that another member
may be fitted against it.
Coped Joint - A joint between two
aluminum-framing members where one extrusion is cut
to the profile of the second.
Cottage Double-Hung - A double-hung
window in which the upper sash is shorter than the
Counter bore - To enlarge a hole
to a given depth.
Countersink - To form a depression
to fit the conic head of a screw or the thickness
of a plate so that the face will be level with the
CR - Condensation factor determined
using NFRC 500-2004. A relative indicator of a fenestration
product's ability to resist the formation of condensation
at a specific set of environmental conditions.
Crack Length - Total outside perimeter
of a window sash/vent; no longer used to define the
AAMA air-infiltration rate.
Crazing - Minute cracks in a surface
or coating caused by force bending a material, such
as aluminum, beyond the recommended minimum radius.
CRF - Condensation Resistance Factor
is a rating number obtained under standard-test conditions
which allows a prediction, within reasonable accuracy,
of the ability of a window, door or glazed wall to
resist the formation of condensation on interior surfaces
(Higher CRF value indicates better performance).
Cripple - A short stud located under
the rough sill or above the header.
CSI - Construction Specifications
Curing - The process of allowing
sealants to dry and harden over a given period of
Curtain Wall (Aluminum) - An exterior
building wall which carries no roof or floor loads
and consists of a combination of aluminum, glass and
other surfacing materials supported by the aluminum
Custodial Lock - Window hardware
only operable with a tool or key.
Cylinder - The cylindrical mechanism
has a keyhole which receives the key used to operate
a locking mechanism.
Cylinder Cam - Usually refers to
the flat metal plate on the end of a mortise type
cylinder which actuates the lock mechanism when rotated
by the key.
Cylinder Guard - Hardened protective
shield designed to prevent unlawful entry by forcefully
twisting and removing the cylinder.
Cylinder Ring - Spacing collar to
accommodate longer cylinders.
Daylight Transmittance - The percentage
of visible light that glazing transmits through a
window – a standard clear dual pane without considering
whether a window frame has a daylight transmittance
De-bridging - The process whereby
the aluminum-bridge web connecting the exterior and
interior portions of the extruded thermal-break cavity
is removed either by milling or sawing after the polyurethane
Dead Latch - A latch bolt having
an auxiliary feature which prevents its retraction
by end pressure when in a projected position.
Dead Lock and Latch - A hardware
item containing both a deadbolt and latch bolt.
Deadload - A static applied load.
A load without movement.
Decibel - Unit used to measure sound.
The human ear can normally detect a decibel change
of 1 to 3. Normal conversation is around 60 dB while
a 747 jet at takeoff is around 125 dB.
Decibel Loss - A measure of reduction
Deflection - The measure of movement
of a member from its static position when subjected
Degree Day - A unit that represents
a one-degree Fahrenheit deviation from some fixed
reference point (usually 65° F) in the mean, daily
outdoor temperature. See also heating degree day.
Desiccant - An extremely porous
crystalline substance used to absorb moisture from
within the sealed air space of an insulating glass
Design Load - The project wind load
to be determined by the architect and expressed in
psf. Windows ratings are determined using AAMA 101/I.S.2/A440-05.
Designation Number - Prescribed
by AAMA. One for each window style. It provides a
code for architectural selection, e.g., a single hung
6220 = H-R20 = Single Hung - Residential Grade - 20
psf Design Pressure.
Dewpoint - The temperature at which
water vapor in air will condense at a given state
of humidity and pressure.
Divided Light - A window whose glass
is separated by true divided lite (see TDL), simulated
divided lite (see SDL) or by muntins.
Door Backset - Dimension from the
face plane of door to the face plane of frame.
Door Clearance - The margin of clearance
around the edge of a door, between door and frame.
Door Closer - A device or mechanism
to control a door during its opening and closing cycle;
may be overhead or floor mounted and either exposed
Door Frame - An assembly of members,
consisting of jambs and a header, into which a door
or doors fit when closed. The door frame may also
include transom lights and adjacent sidelights. Also
Door Handing - Determined by placing
your back to the hinge jamb. If the door swings to
your left it is a left-handed door.
Door Holder - A hardware device
designed to limit the swing of a door and hold it
in an open position.
Door Jamb - One of two vertical
members of a door frame. The hinge jamb is the jamb
to which the hinges or pivots are mounted; the lock
jamb is the jamb at the leading edge of the door where
a lock bolt may be engaged.
Door Light - The glass area in a
Door Opening - The opening dimension
of a doorway is measured from inside of jambs and
from floor line to underside of frame header. The
opening size is usually the nominal door size and
is equal to the actual door size plus clearances and
Door Size (Actual) - The actual
width and height of the swing door leaf.
Door Size (Nominal) - See Door Opening.
Door Stop - a) A molding or projecting
element on a door frame which overlaps the edge of
a door, causing it to stop in its closed position.
b) A bumper mounted on the floor or wall to limit
the extent of the door opening. c) An accessory feature
of a door holder.
Dormer - A space which protrudes
from the roof of a house, usually including one or
Double Glazing - In general, two
thicknesses of glass separated by an air space within
an opening to improve insulation against heat transfer
and/or sound transmission. In factory-made double-glazing
units, the air between the glass sheets is thoroughly
dried and the space is sealed airtight, eliminating
possible condensation and providing superior insulating
Double-Acting Door - A door equipped
with hardware that permits it to swing in both directions
from the plane of its frame.
Double-Hung Window - A window consisting
of two sashes operating in a rectangular frame, in
which both the upper and lower halves can be slid
up and down. A counterbalance mechanism usually holds
the sash in place.
Double-Strength Glass - Sheet glass
between 0.115" and 0.133" (33.38 mm)
Drip Mold - An exterior molding
(extrusion or brake shape) contoured for controlling
or deflecting dripping water.
Dry Glazing - A method of securing
glass in a frame that uses pre-formed resilient gaskets
instead of a wet sealant or glazing compound.
Dual Durometer - A material that
has two or more levels of flexibility.
Dual Window - Two windows joined
together, one in front of the other, to provide superior
Durometer - An instrument with a
blunt probe used to measure the hardness of elastomeric
glazing gaskets and setting blocks on a scale of 0
to 100. Also see Shore A.
E E.P.D.M - (Ethylene Propylene
Diene Monomer) is a type of elastomeric material which
has excellent resistance to ozone, sunlight, and severe
weather conditions and is ideal for outdoor service.
Edge Blocks - Short lengths of elastomeric
materials located at one or both sides of a glass
light to limit lateral movement ("walking")
caused by horizontal expansion/contraction, minimal
building sway or other factors.
Edge Clearance - The dimension between
the edge of the glass or panel and its surrounding
frame which is measured in the plane of the glass
Edge Cover - The dimension by which
the inner edge of the frame or stop overlaps the edge
of the glass or panel.
Edge Effects - Two-dimensional heat
transfer at the edge of a glazing unit due to the
thermal properties of spacers and sealants.
Edge of Glass - The glass area within
2 1/2" (10cm) of the edge of a window.
Egress - Exit or way out.
Egress Window - A window meeting
certain size requirements for egress. The size is
determined by national or local building codes. Typically,
the rule is 5.7 sq. ft. of clear opening, 20"
minimum clear width and 24" minimum clear height.
Elasticity - The condition or property
of being elastic; flexibility.
Elastomeric Material - A term often
used for rubber and polymers that have properties
similar to those of rubber. Thermal break polymers
having the elastic properties of natural rubber.
Electrochromics - Glazing with optical
properties can vary continuously from clear to dark
with a low-voltage signal. Ions are reversibly injected
or removed from an electrochromic material, causing
the optical density to change.
Electrolysis - Chemical decomposition
of a metal surface by the action of dissimilar metals
Electromagnetic Spectrum - Radiant
energy over a broad range of wavelengths.
Electrostatic Painting - A painting
process by which the aluminum is grounded and the
paint carries a positive electric current. This creates
a magnetic attraction between the paint and the aluminum,
allowing for uniform paint coverage on all exposed
Emergency Exit Window - Fire escape
window (egress window) large enough for a person to
climb out. In U.S. building codes, each bedroom must
be provided with an exit window. The exact width,
area, and height from the floor are specified in the
Emergency Release - A safety device
other than panic hardware which permits egress through
an entrance door under emergency conditions.
Emissivity - Emission, or the ability
to radiate heat in the form of long-wave radiation.
Emittance - The ratio of the radiant
flux emitted by a specimen to that emitted by a black
body at the same temperature and under the same conditions.
End Dam - Used to close the ends
of a subsill, so water will not leak out of the ends.
It makes the subsill a complete water trough allowing
it to collect excess water and drain it to the exterior.
Entrance - The doorway, vestibule
or lobby through which one enters a building.
ER Rating - Energy rating number
developed by the CSA (Canadian Standards Association)
to compare the thermal performance of windows. Measured
in watts per square meter (W/m2).
Escutcheon Plate - Back plate for
handles and deadbolts.
Exterior Glazing - A method in which
glass is secured in an opening from the exterior of
Extrudability - This term is used
to compare the relative resistance of different alloys
and/or shapes to deformation in the extrusion process
and is usually based on pressure required and attainable
Extrudability Limits - A set of
guidelines established by the Aluminum Association
which provides limits on the production of extrusions.
Dimensional tolerances, gap-width ratios, extrusion
factor and circumscribing circle are examples of these
Extruded Aluminum Shapes - There
are two basic types of extruded shapes: Solid Extrusion
- Any extruded shape other than a hollow or semi-hollow
shape. Semi-Hollow Extrusion - An extruded shape where
any part of the cross section partially encloses a
void. The area of the void bears a fixed ratio to
the square of the gap as shown in published tables
developed by the Aluminum Association.
Extrusion - The metal-fabricating
process by which a heated aluminum billet is forced
to flow through a hole in a steel die of the desired
shape. Also see Extrusion Press.
Extrusion Circle Size - This is
represented by the diameter of the smallest circle
that will completely enclose the aluminum extrusion.
For a die with two or more holes, the diameter of
the smallest circle that will enclose all the holes
in the die is designated as the layout circle. Also
see Extrusion Side Wall Clearance.
Extrusion Die - A steel plate or
forging having a hole of the desired extrusion shape
through which the aluminum is forced to flow. The
die is specially machined to control the flow of metal.
Extrusion Die Support Too - These
include the steel die ring, die backer, bolster and
sub-bolster and have the purpose of supporting the
die against the very high pressures of extrusion and
transferring these forces to the head of the press.
Extrusion Factor - The numeral representing
this term is the ratio of the perimeter of an aluminum
extrusion to its weight per foot. It is a measure
of the complexity of an extruded shape represented
on the die drawing. Thin wall sections have high factor
numbers and are more difficult to extrude. A solid
round section has the lowest factor and would require
less extrusion pressure than a more complicated shape
with a high factor but an equivalent weight per foot.
Extrusion Press - A hydraulic press
used for forcing heated aluminum ingots (billets)
through a hole in a steel die of the desired shape.
Extrusion Pressure - The pressure
available for aluminum extrusion is determined by
dividing the press capacity in pounds by the cross-sectional
area of the bore of the container in square inches.
Extrusion Ratio - This is determined
by dividing the cross-sectional area of the bore of
the container by the sum of the cross-sectional areas
of the holes in the die. It is the measure of the
deformation required to reduce the aluminum billet
size to the extrusion size.
Extrusion Side Wall Clear - One-half
the difference between the container diameter and
the layout circle. This clearance is necessary to
avoid feed-in of the liquated outer surface of the
extrusion billet or of the skull that may adhere to
the wall of the container. Greater side wall clearances
are specified for extrusions with very critical surface
requirements. Also see Extrusion Circle Size.
Eyebrow Windows - Picture windows
that are segments of circles rather than arch windows
which are half circles.
Fabricate - To cut, punch and subassemble
Facade - The exterior face of a
building, especially the principal face.
Face Clearance - The dimension measured
between the face plane of a light of glass or panel
and the nearest face of its retaining frame or stop.
Fasten - To mechanically attach
components together with fasteners such as screws,
bolts, pins, nails, hooks, etc.
Fenestration - The arrangement and
proportion of window and door openings in a building.
Fiberglass - A composite material
made by embedding glass fibers in a polymer matrix.
May be used as a diffusing material in sheet form,
or as a standard sash and frame element.
Fin Seal - A form of pile weatherstrip
that has a plastic mylar fin centered in the pile.
This fin reduces air infiltration and ensures weatherstrip
contact throughout the window's life.
Finger Guard - A closure strip of
soft material such as rubber or plastic, which is
applied at the edge of a door or to the pivot jamb
adjacent to a door. It is designed to prevent damage
to hands or fingers inserted between door and frame.
Finger-jointing - A means of joining
individual pieces of wood together to form longer
lengths. The ends of the pieces are machined to form
a set of interlocking fingers, which are then coated
with adhesive and meshed together under pressure.
Finish Hardware - Exposed hardware
such as hinges, pivots, locks, etc. that has a finished
appearance as well as a function used with doors and
Fixed Light - A pane of glass installed
directly into non-operating framing members; also,
the opening or space for a pane of glass in a non-operating
Fixed Panel - An inoperable panel
of a sliding glass door or slider window.
Fixed Window - Fixed windows are
not intended to open for ventilation or egress. There
are no moving parts, hinges or latches. They consist
of a glazed frame or a fixed sash and frame. Fixed
windows are usually more air tight than windows that
open. Also called Picture Window.
Flange Frame - A window frame with
the head, jamb, and sill exterior perimeter leg longer
than the interior perimeter leg. Also called Flush
Flashing - Sheet Material that bridges
and protects the joint (gap) between the window or
door frame members and the adjacent construction for
the purpose of preventing water penetration by draining
water away from the window or door.
Flat Filler - An extrusion which
snap fits into a mating vertical or horizontal member
to provide a continuous flat surface.
Float Glass - Glass formed by a
process of floating the material on a bed of molten
metal. It produces a high-optical-quality glass with
parallel surfaces, without polishing and grinding.
Flush Bolt - A pair of rods or bolts
that are mounted flush with the edge or the face of
the inactive door to lock the door to the frame at
head and/or sill. A flush bolt mounted in the edge
is operated by means of a recessed lever.
Flush Fin - A retrofit window that
has a fin pushed out to the exterior of the window
or door. AKA- Z-Bar, Retrofit, stucco fin.
Flush Glazing - Glazing in which
glass is set in a recess in the aluminum frame; stops
are also recessed; the glazing is flush with the frame
surface. These systems are also called Pocket Glazed
and Center Glazed.
Foam Spacer - Foam spacer used in
insulating glass windows.
Fogging - A deposit of contamination
left on the inside surface of a sealed insulating
glass unit due to extremes of temperatures or failed
Framing - An assembly of structural
aluminum extrusions consisting of a jamb, vertical
mullion, intermediate horizontal, header and sill
which are fitted together to form a structure into
which glass or other infill material is installed.
French Hinged Door - Hinged doors
that have wider panel members around the glass.
French Sliding Door - Sliding doors
that have wider panel members around the glass, giving
the appearance of a French-hinged door.
Fully Tempered Glass - Glass that
has been heated and quenched in a controlled operation
to provide a high level of surface compression. ASTM
Standard C 1048-85 specifies that the surface compression
be a minimum of 10000 psi. Generally considered to
have four times the strength of annealed glass and
two times the strength of heat-strengthened glass.
GANA - Glass Association of North
America Gas Fill. A gas other than air, usually argon
or krypton, placed between window or skylight glazing
panes to reduce the U-factor by suppressing conduction
Gasket - A rubber or plastic pliable
material used to separate glazed glass and aluminum
Glass - An inorganic transparent
material composed of silica (sand), soda (sodium carbonate),
and lime (calcium carbonate) with small quantities
of alumina, boric, or magnesia oxides.
Glass Stop - A glazing bead that
is either applied to or is an integral part of the
Glaze - To install glass lights
or infill material.
Glazing - The act of furnishing
or fitting with glass.
Glazing Bead - A light member applied
to a frame or door stile or rail to hold glass or
infill in a fixed position.
Glazing Gasket - A preformed elastomeric
or plastic material applied between the face of the
glass and the glazing pocket of the framing to seal
and secure glass into frames by a dry glazing method
without using compounds or tapes.
Greenhouse (Garden) Window - A three-dimensional
window that projects from the exterior wall and usually
has glazing on all sides except the bottom, which
serves as a shelf.
Greenhouse Effect - The property
of glass that permits the transmission of short-wave
solar radiation, but is opaque to long-wave thermal
radiation. The interior of a car heating up in direct
sun illustrates the greenhouse effect.
Grids Between the Glass - Aluminum
bars in varying thicknesses and profiles sealed between
insulating glass panels to simulate muntin bars.
Grille - A term referring to windowpane
dividers or muntins, usually a type of assembly which
may be detached for cleaning.
Hairline Joint - The fine line of
contact between abutting members with the maximum
joint width limited to 1/64".
Hand of Door - The designation for
describing the direction a door swings. Visualize
your back to the hinge or pivot jamb. If the door
swings right, it is a right-handed door. If the door
swings left, it is a left-handed door.
Hardware for the Physically Challenged
- Hardware designed specifically to accommodate the
needs of the physically challenged and to provide
for ease of operation and accessibility.
Haze Factor - The percentage of
light through a glazing material that is not diffused.
(A 100% haze factor would equate to 100% of the light
Head or Header - The horizontal
frame member which forms the top of a frame.
Heat Fusion - A welding method to
join PVC frame and/or sash members by heating the
cut ends, squeezing them together, and allowing the
assembly to cool.
Heat Gain - The transfer of heat
from outside to inside by means of conduction, convection,
and radiation through all surfaces of a house.
Heat Loss - The transfer of heat
from inside to outside by means of conduction, convection,
and radiation through all surfaces of a house.
Heat Treating - The process where
aluminum extrusions are heated and cooled to make
these materials hard.
Heat-Absorbing Glass - Window glass
containing chemicals (with gray, bronze, or blue-green
tint) which absorb light and heat radiation, while
reducing glare and brightness. Also see Tinted glass.
Heat-Strengthened Glass - Glass
that has been heated and quenched in a controlled
operation to provide a degree of surface compression.
ASTM Standard C 1048-85 specifies that the surface
compression be between 3500 and 10000 psi. Generally
considered to have two times the strength of annealed
Heating Degree Day - Term used by
heating and cooling engineers to relate the typical
climate conditions of different areas to the amount
of energy needed to heat and cool a building. The
base temperature is 65 degrees Fahrenheit. A heating
degree day is counted for each degree below 65 degrees
reached by the average daily outside temperatures
in the winter. For example, if on a given winter day,
the daily average temperature outdoors is 30 degrees,
then there are 35 degrees below the base temperature
of 65 degrees. Thus, there are 35 heating degree days
for that day.
Hermetically Sealed Unit - An insulating
glass unit that is sealed against moisture. The unit
is made up of two lites of glass, separated by a spacer
(at the full perimeter) which contains a moisture
absorbing material. The unit is then completely sealed,
creating a moisture-free air space.
HERS - Home Energy Rating System.
A California home energy rating certification program.
High-Impact Acrylic - Glazing material
which has an impact modifier blended with the acrylic
resin to meet specific impact requirements.
Hinge - A hardware device that connects
a sash to a frame and enabling it to swing open or
Hinge Backset - Depth of the hinge
leaf that is mortised into a door stile or doorjamb.
Hinge Reinforcement (Back-Up Plate)
- A metal plate attached to the door and/or doorframe
to receive a hinge.
Hinge Stile - The vertical structural
member of a door to which the hinges are attached
and about which the door pivots.
Hinged Windows - Windows (casement
and awning) with an operating sash that has hinges
on one side. See also Projected Window.
Hip - The intersection between two
sloping surfaces forming an exterior angle.
Hollow Extrusion - An extrusion
having an enclosed cavity within it.
Hopper - Window with a sash hinged
at the bottom.
Horizontal Slider - HS have two
or more sash (panels) within a frame. They may have
one moving and one fixed sash (XO or OX), two moving
sash on either side of a fixed sash (XOX), or two
adjacent sash may slide by each other (XX). Most have
rollers to ease operation.
IBC - International Building Code.
ICC - International Code Council.
A national organization that publishes model codes
for adoption by states and other agencies. Codes include
the International Residential Code (IRC), International
Building Code (IBC) and the International Energy Conservation
IECC - International Energy Conservation
Code published by the ICC. The successor to the Model
Energy Code, which is cited in the 1992 U.S. Energy
Policy Act (EPAct) as the baseline for residential
Energy Codes in the United States.
IGCC - Insulating Glass Certification
Council - directs a certification program of periodic
accelerated laboratory testing and unannounced plant
inspections to ensure sealed insulating glass performance
is in conformance with ASTM E 774-88.
IGMA - Insulating Glass Manufacturers
Inactive Door or Leaf - The last
door of a pair of doors to be released when unlocking,
usually the one not equipped with a primary lock.
Incompatibility - Adverse reaction.
Infill - Various materials glazed
into a framing system.
Infiltration - See air leakage.
Infrared Radiation - Invisible,
electromagnetic radiation beyond red light on the
spectrum with wavelengths greater than 0.7 microns.
Inside Snap Trim - Used in retrofit
work to cover the inside gap between the new window
and the existing opening.
Insulated Shutters - Insulating
panels that cover a window opening to reduce heat
Insulating Glass Unit (IG) - An
integral glass unit made up of two or three individual
lights of glass separated by an air space.
Insulating Value - See U-factor.
Insulation - Material that has the
ability to reduce heat or cold transmission.
Integral Mullion - A frame member
trapped within the master frame to separate vents
or fixed glass.
Interior Glazing - A method in which
glass is secured in an opening from the interior of
Interlock - An upright frame member
of a panel in a sliding window or sliding glass door
which engages with a corresponding member in an adjacent
panel when the window or door is closed. Also called
Intermediate Butt Hinge - A butt
hinge located between the top and bottom hinges on
IRC - International Residential
Jack Stud - Vertical framing members,
generally 2x4's, which form the inside of the window
or door rough opening. They support the header and
run down to the sole plate.
Jalousie - Window made up of horizontally-mounted
louvered glass slats that abut each other tightly
when closed and rotate outward when open.
Jamb - The end vertical member of
an aluminum framing system which terminates at the
intersection of a wall. It is often referred to as
a wall jamb.
Jamb Anchor - A metal device inserted
in the back of a metal frame to anchor the frame to
the wall. A masonry anchor is used in a masonry wall
and a stud anchor in a wall built with wood or metal
Jamb Extension - Pieces of material
used to extend the depth of the jamb to equal the
depth of the rough opening.
Jamb Liner - In a double-hung window,
the track installed inside the jambs on which the
window sashes slide. Vinyl or metal covering applied
to the side jambs of double-hung and single-hung windows.
They are generally formed to include an integral balance
system and stops for the exterior and interior surfaces
of the sash.
Joint Design - The design of a void
to be filled with sealants to prevent air or water
Keeper - Part of a door or window
that the lock latches onto.
Kerf - The channel or groove cut
by a saw or other tool.
Keyed-Alike Cylinders - Cylinders
operated by the same key. (Not to be confused with
Keyed-Different Cylinders - Cylinders
requiring individual keys for their operation.
Keyway - The keyhole of a cylinder
Kick Plate - A plate applied to
the face on the bottom of a door or sidelight to protect
against abrasion or impact loads or maintain sight
King Stud - A full-length stud nailed
to the end of the header.
Knob - A round handle for actuating
a locking or latching device.
Knocked Down (kd) - Unassembled
window or door unit. Not including glass.
Knuckle - The parts of a butt hinge
which enclose the hinge pin.
Krypton - An inert, nontoxic gas
used in insulating windows to reduce heat transfer.
KWH - KiloWatt Hour. A unit of energy
or work that is equal to one-thousand watt-hours.
Laminated glass - Two or more sheets
of glass with an inner layer of transparent plastic
to which the glass adheres if broken. Used for safety
glazing and sound reduction.
Latch - A mechanism having a spring-activated
beveled latch bolt. Retraction of the latch bolt is
by lever handle or knob.
Latch Lock - See Lock.
Leaf - An individual door used either
in a single or multiples (leaves).
LEED - Leadership in Energy and
Environmental Design. Rating system for the design,
construction, and operation of high-performance green
Left or right sliding - Location
information, always outside looking in, that is used
to specify direction, e.g., "the operating sash
slides to the right."
Level - The condition of perfect
Lever Handle - A bar-like grip which
is rotated about an axis at one of its ends to operate
a locking or latching device.
Lift - Handle for raising the lower
sash in a single-hung or double-hung window. Also
called Sash Lift.
Light or Lite - A separately framed
piece of glass in a window or door. Sometimes spelled
'Lite." A single (monolithic) glass pane or piece.
Light-to-Solar-Gain Ratio - A measure
of the ability of a glazing to provide light without
excessive solar-heat gain. It is the ratio between
the visible transmittance of a glazing and its solar-heat
Lintel - A horizontal structural
member that spans an opening at the head to carry
the weight of construction above the opening.
Liquid Crystal Glazing - Glass in
which the optical properties of a thin layer of liquid
crystals are controlled by an electrical current,
changing from a clear to a diffusing state.
Lite - Same as Light.
Liveload - Loads from non-permanent
parts of the building (window washing and glazing
rigs are liveloads).
Lock Backset - Distance from the
edge of the locking stile to the centerline of the
cylinder, measured parallel to the face of the door.
Lock Face Plate - The exposed plate
set on the edge of a door to cover a locking mechanism.
Lock, Dead lock - A lock in which
a bolt is moved by means of a key or thumb turn and
is positively stopped in its projected position.
Long-Wave Infrared Radiation - Invisible
radiation, beyond red light on the electromagnetic
spectrum (above 3.5 micro meters), emitted by warm
surfaces such as a body at room temperature radiating
to a cold window surface.
Louvers - Glass, metal, or vinyl
slats, either movable or fixed; as in a Jalousie window
Low-Conductance Spacers - An assembly
of materials designed to reduce heat transfer at the
edge of an insulating window. Spacers are placed between
the panes of glass in a double- or triple-glazed window.
Low-E Glass - Low emissivity glass;
a type of reflective glass used to reduce radiation
heat transfer and improve the U-value of the glazing.
Low-Emittance (Low-E) Coating -
Microscopically thin, virtually invisible, metal or
metallic-oxide layers deposited on a window or skylight
glazing surface primarily to reduce the U-factor by
suppressing radiative heat flow. A typical type of
low-E coating is transparent to the solar spectrum
(visible light and short-wave infrared radiation)
and reflective of long-wave infrared radiation.
Marine Glazing - A U-channel of
soft PVC which is wrapped around the edge of the glass,
cushioning the glass against the aluminum or vinyl.
This process allows for unrestricted expansion and
contraction and watertightness masonry opening. The
space in a masonry wall left open for windows or door.
The opening in a masonry wall to accept a window or
door unit; also known as a rough opening in a frame
wall. The header (or lintel) in a masonry opening
is usually a steel beam.
Master Key - A key that will operate
a number of different locks, each of which is different
from the rest.
Master Keying - A system of keying
cylinders so that one master key will operate all
of them, secondary keys will operate only certain
groups, and other keys will operate only certain individual
Medium Stile - See Stile.
Meeting rail - The part of a sliding
glass door, a sliding window, or a hung window where
two panels meet and create a weather barrier.
Meeting Stile - The stiles of the
active and inactive leaves which meet when a pair
of doors is closed.
Micron - One millionth (10-6) of
a metric meter.
Mil - One thousandth of an inch,
or 0.0254 millimeter.
Mill Finish - The original finish
of aluminum before finishing.
Miter - A joint made up of two members,
each of which is cut one-half the total angle of the
Model Building Code - A construction
code developed from input from industry, building
officials, and others for use as a guide for the development
of state and local building codes. Model building
codes have no legislative or jurisdictional power.
Model Energy Code (MEC) - The Model
Energy Code is cited in the 1992 U.S. Energy Policy
Act (EPAct) as the baseline for residential Energy
Codes in the United States. It has been succeeded
by the International Energy Conservation Code (IECC).
Mortise - A rectangular cutout which
is fabricated in the aluminum entrance door and/or
frame in preparation to receive a lock or butt hinge.
Mortise Lock - A lock designed to
be installed in a mortise on the stile of the door
rather than applied to the door's surface.
Mortise Type - Possesses a threaded
surface for screwing it directly into a lock case
and has a cam on the interior end which engages the
Mortise-And-Tenon - A strong wood
joint made by fitting together a mortise in one board
and a matching projecting member (tenon) in the other.
MSDS - A Material Safety Data Sheet
is a detailed information bulletin prepared by the
manufacturer or importer of a chemical that describes
the physical and chemical properties, physical and
health hazards, routes of exposure, precautions for
safe handling and use, emergency and first-aid procedures,
and control measures. Information on an MSDS aids
in the selection of safe products and helps prepare
employers and employees to respond effectively to
daily exposure situations as well as to emergency
Mullion - A major structural vertical
or horizontal member between window units or sliding
Muntin - A secondary framing member
used to hold panes within a window, window wall or
Nail Fin - A fin on a window or
door that is used to fasten the product into a rough
opening. Usually not seen after installation is complete.
Narrow Stile - See Stile.
Neoprene - A synthetic rubber having
physical properties closely resembling those of natural
rubber but not requiring sulphur for vulcanization.
Extremely good weather resistance (both heat and cold)
with ultraviolet stability. Commonly used for commercial
NFRC - National Fenestration Rating
Nite Latch - Hardware which, when
engaged, restricts the sash opening to a predetermined
Obscure Glass - Any textured glass
(frosted, etched, fluted, ground, etc.) used for privacy,
light diffusion, or decorative effects.
Operable Window - Window that can
be opened for ventilation.
Operator (Crank) - Operated device
for opening and closing casement or jalousie windows.
Oriel Window - A window with unequal
OSHA - Occupational Safety and Health
Administration is a federal agency charged with making
the laws and standards that are designed to make the
Palladian Window - A large, arch-top
window flanked by smaller windows on each side.
Pane - One of the compartments of
a door or window consisting of a single sheet of glass
in a frame; Also, a Sheet of Glass.
Panel - A major component of a sliding
glass door, consisting of a light of glass in a frame
installed within the main (or outer) frame of the
door. A panel may be sliding or fixed.
Panning - In replacement window
work, the outside aluminum trim that can extend around
the perimeter of the window opening; used to cover
up the old window material. Panning can be installed
in the opening before the window, or attached directly
to the window before installation.
Parting Stop - A narrow strip, either
integral or applied, that holds a sash or panel in
position in a frame.
Passive Solar - A solar heating
system that operates on natural thermal processes,
and uses no external mechanical power to move the
collected heat. Generally, the building's structure
itself forms the solar system.
Patio Doors - Sliding glass doors,
often used for access to a deck or terrace.
Peak Load - The maximum thermal
load to be provided by a heating or cooling system
in a house.
Photochromics - Glazing with the
optical properties that change in response to the
amount of incident light.
Picture Window - A large, fixed
window framed so that it is usually, but not always,
longer horizontally than vertically to provide a panoramic
Pivot Window - A window with a sash
that swings open or shut by revolving on pivots at
either side of the sash or at top and bottom.
Plate Glass - A rolled, ground,
and polished product with true flat parallel plane
surfaces, affording excellent vision. It has been
replaced by Float Glass.
Plumb - The condition of exact vertical
Polyurethane - Product produced
by the reaction of a polyfunctional isocyanate with
a polyol or other reactant containing two or more
Polyvinylchloride (PVC) - An extruded
or molded plastic material used for window framing
and as a thermal barrier for aluminum windows.
Poured and Debridged - Framing system
thermal break made by flowing a catalyzed liquid material
with low thermal conductivity into a one-piece channel
and then removing the base of the channel or bridge
after solidification to form a thermally improved
extrusion. Also see Thermal Cavity.
Primer - A substance that improves
the adhesion of sealant or paint.
Projected Window - A window fitted
with one or more sashes opening on pivoted arms or
hinges. Refers to casements, awnings, and hoppers.
PSF (Pounds Per Square Foot) - A
measurement of air pressure used in window testing,
e.g., 1.56 psf (25 mph) or 6.24 psf (50 mph).
Pull Hardware - A fixed handle or
grip used to pull a door open.
Punch - To perforate by pressing
a non-rotating tool through the work.
Purlins - Horizontal members extending
between rafters for supporting the glass on slope-glazed
Pyrolytic Coating - A special coating
sprayed directly onto glass while it is still in a
molten state, resulting in a permanently embedded
surface coating. Sometimes referred to as hard-coat
R-Value - A measure of the resistance
of a glazing material or fenestration assembly to
heat flow. It is the inverse of the U-factor (R =
1/U) and is expressed in units of hr-sq ft-°F/Btu.
A high R-value window has a greater resistance to
heat flow and a higher insulating value than one with
a low R-value.
Racking - The forcing out-of-plumb
of structural components.
Radiation - The transfer of heat
in the form of electromagnetic waves from one separate
surface to another. Energy from the sun reaches the
earth by radiation.
Rafter - For sloped glazing, a main
nominally sloped framing member.
Rail - A horizontal member located
at the top and bottom of a window or door.
Ream - To finish a drilled or punched
hole very accurately with a rotating fluted tool of
the required diameter.
Receptor - A channel-shaped, telescopic
member which adapts the frame of a window wall or
storefront system to the size of the window wall or
storefront system opening; an adapter.
Reflectance - The ratio of reflected
radiant energy to incident radiant energy.
Reflected Radiation - Solar radiation
that strikes an exposed surface (like a window) after
being reflected from the ground, trees, buildings,
snow, etc. Reflected radiation can provide a significant
amount of heat when vertical windows are used.
Reflective Glass - Window glass
coated to reflect radiation striking the surface of
Refraction - The deflection of a
light ray from a straight path passes at an oblique
angle from one medium (such as air) to another (such
Relative Heat Gain - A measurement
of the total heat gain through glazing for a specific
set of conditions.
Relative Humidity - The percentage
of moisture in the air in relationship to the amount
of moisture the air could hold at that given temperature.
At 100 percent relative humidity, moisture condenses
and falls as rain.
Resfen - A computer program used
to calculate energy use based on window selection
in residential buildings.
Retrofit - To add new materials
or equipment not provided at the time of original
Reveal - In windows it is typically
the distance from the glazing to the edge of the frame.
On hinged doors it is the distance from the face of
a door to the face of the frame on the pivot or hinge
Ridge - The horizontal member at
the junction of the upper edges of two sloping glass
Roof Window - A fixed or operable
window similar to a skylight placed in the sloping
surface of a roof.
Rough Opening - The opening in a
wall into which a door or window is to be installed.
Rough Sill - The horizontal rough
framing member that forms the bottom of the rough
S -Value - Section Modulus of the
cross section of a member about the neutral axis perpendicular
to the loads. This section property is used to calculate
the stress on a member under loads. It is directly
proportional to the capacity of the member. (Higher
S-values improve the member’s performance and reduce
S.T.C. - Sound Transmission Class
is a single number rating that measures the sound
insulation value of a partition, door, or window.
It is derived from a curve of its insulation value
as a function of frequency. The higher the number,
the more effective the sound insulation.
S.T.L. - Sound Transmission Loss
is a measure of the sound-insulation value of a partition.
It is the amount, in decibels, by which the intensity
of the sound is reduced in transmission through the
Sash - An assembly of lightweight
aluminum extrusions forming the perimeter of a fixed
light of glass.
Sash Balance - A coiled spring or
spiral system integrated into the jambs to ease the
operation of hung sashes when opening and closing.
They also allow the sashes to remain open in varied
Sash Cord - In double-hung windows,
the rope or chain which attaches the sash to the counter
Sash Lift - A protruding handle
screwed to the inside bottom rail of the lower sash
on a double-hung window.
Sash Lock - Generally, a lock applied
to the interlocks or stiles of a sliding or hung window
to secure the moving panel in place.
Sash Stop - Cover in jamb track
that reduces sash travel on hung windows.
Sash Weights - In older double-hung
windows, the concealed cast-iron weights which are
used to counterbalance the sash.
SBC - Standard Building Code was
first enacted by the Southern Building Code Congress
International on November 16, 1945. Area of influence
was Southeastern portion of the United States. Replaced
by the ICC codes.
Screen - Woven mesh of metal, plastic,
or fiberglass stretched over a window opening to permit
air to pass through, but not insects.
Screw Boss - A continuous screw
track in an extrusion. The track is designed to accept
a specific diameter sheet metal screw to provide a
secure means of fastening extrusions without the use
Sealant - An elastomeric material
with adhesive qualities used to seal joints or openings
against the passage of air and water.
Sealant Backing - A compressible
material inserted into a joint prior to applying a
sealant to limit the depth of the applied sealant.
Also see Backer Rod.
Seat Board - A flat board cut to
fit the contour of a bow or bay window that's installed
between the sills and the flat wall surface. They
provide a seat or shelf space.
Seismic Load - Building movement
and forces caused by earthquake motion.
Setting Block - A small piece of
elastomeric material placed under glass in a frame
to distribute the weight of the glass, to center the
glass vertically within the frame and to prevent glass-to-metal
contact. The recommended durometer for setting block
material is 85±5 Shore A scale. Also see Shore
Shade Screen - A specially fabricated
screen of sheet material with small narrow louvers
formed in place to intercept solar radiation striking
a window; the louvers are so small that only extremely
small insects can pass through. Also called Sun Screen.
Shading Coefficient (SC) - A measure
of the ability of a window or skylight to transmit
solar heat, relative to that ability for 1/8-inch
clear, double-strength, single glass. It is being
phased out in favor of the solar heat gain coefficient
- approximately equal to the SHGC multiplied by 1.15.
It is expressed as a number without units between
0 and 1. The lower a window's solar heat gain coefficient
or shading coefficient, the less solar heat it transmits,
and the greater is its shading ability.
Shear Block - A type of joinery
that uses a clip (the shear block) attached to a vertical
mullion. The horizontal member fits over the clip
and is secured by screws driven into the shear block.
Sheet Glass - A transparent, flat
glass found in older windows, now largely replaced
by float glass.
Shim - A spacer of uniform thickness
and varying sizes used to plumb and level frames.
Shore A - Test used to measure the
durometer (hardness) of elastomeric glazing gaskets
and usually referred to as Shore A (Shore Instrument
Company - Scale A). Also see Durometer.
Short-Wave Infrared Radia - Invisible
radiation, just beyond red light on the electromagnetic
spectrum (between 0.7 and 2.5 microns), emitted by
hot surfaces and included in solar radiation.
Sidelight - The glazed frame or
frames placed on one or both sides of a door.
Silicone - A chemical used as a
lubricant or as a sealant.
Sill - The bottom horizontal member
of a door, window or sash frame.
Sill Pan - A rigid flashing installed
under doors or windows that has a purpose of collecting
and draining residual water to the exterior. It can
be formed out of sheet metal or extruded in one piece.
It is designed to have an upstanding leg in the interior
and each end.
Sill track - The track provided
at the sill of a sliding glass door or window. Also,
the sill member that incorporates such a track.
Simulated Divided Lights - A window
that has the appearance of a number of smaller panes
of glass separated by muntins, but actually is a larger
glazing unit with the muntins placed between or on
the surfaces of the glass layers.
Single-Acting Door - A door mounted
to swing in one direction only from the plane of its
Single-Glazing - Single thickness
of glass in a window or door.
Single-Hung Window - A window consisting
of two sashes of glass, the top one stationary and
the bottom movable.
Single-Strength Glass - Glass with
thickness between 0.085" and 0.100" (2.162.57
Skylight (Operable or Piv - A roof
window that gives light and ventilation.
Sliding Glass Door - A door fitted
with one or more panels that move horizontally on
a track and/or in grooves. Moving action is usually
of rolling type (rather than sliding type). Also called
gliding door, rolling glass door, and patio sliding
Sliding Window - A window fitted
with one or more sashes opening by sliding horizontally
or vertically in grooves provided by frame members.
Vertical sliders may be single- or double-hung.
Slope Glazed - A glass and framing
assembly that is sloped more than 15° from vertical.
Smart Window - Generic term for
windows with switchable coatings to control solar
Snowload - Loads imposed on slope
glazed structures by the accumulation of snow.
Soffit - The exposed undersurface
of any overhead component of a building, such as an
arch, balcony, beam, cornice, lintel, or vault.
Solar Control Coatings - Thin film
coatings on glass or plastic that absorb or reflect
solar energy, thereby reducing solar gain.
Solar Heat Gain Coefficient (SHGC)
- The fraction of solar radiation admitted through
a window or skylight, both directly transmitted, and
absorbed and subsequently released inward. The solar
heat gain coefficient has replaced the shading coefficient
as the standard indicator of a window's shading ability.
It is expressed as a number between 0 and 1. The lower
a window's solar heat gain coefficient, the less solar
heat it transmits, and the greater its shading ability.
SHGC can be expressed in terms of the glass alone
or the entire window assembly.
Solar Radiation - The total radiant
energy from the sun, including ultraviolet and infrared
wave lengths as well as visible light.
Solar Screen - A sun shading device,
such as screens, panels, louvers, or blinds, installed
to intercept solar radiation.
Solar Spectrum - The intensity variation
of sunlight across its spectral range.
Solar Transmittance - The percentage
of total solar energy that glazing transmits through
a window – a standard clear dual pane has a solar
transmittance of 71%.
Solar-Tempered House - A dwelling
that obtains a large part of its heat from the sun.
Sole Plate - The bottom horizontal
piece in a frame wall, usually single or double 2x4's.
The wall is nailed into the deck or rough floor through
the sole plate.
Solid Extrusion - An extruded shape
other than a hollow or a semi-hollow extruded shape.
Less costly to produce compared to semi or hollow
Sound Transmission Class - The
sound transmission loss rating of a material over
a selected range of sound frequencies. The higher
the number, the less sound transmitted.
Span - Distance between centers
Spandrel - Opaque glazing material
most often used to conceal building elements between
floors of a building, so they cannot be seen from
Spectrally Selective Coat - A coated
or tinted glazing with optical properties that are
transparent to some wavelengths of energy and reflective
to others. Typical spectrally selective coatings are
transparent to visible light and reflect short-wave
and long-wave infrared radiation.
Speed Control - The mechanism that
controls the rate of speed at which a door will operate.
Splice - A longitudinal or latitudinal
connection between the parts of a continuous member.
Sputtered Coating - A coating deposited
on glass or film atom-by-atom in a precise process
inside a vacuum chamber. Softcoat low-E uses sputtered
STC (Sound Transmission Class) -
Describes acoustical control for interior panels,
and, even though inadequate, sometimes exterior windows.
The higher the number, the better the product is at
resisting typical sound frequencies excluding airplane
and train noises.
Steel Reinforcing - A steel component
placed within a vertical mullion to add stiffness
and increase the windload capability of the system.
Steel reinforcing may also be used to limit deadload
deflection in intermediate horizontals.
Stiffener - A reinforcing member
which serves to limit the deflection of the member
to which it is attached.
Stile - A vertical member of a window
or door, exclusive of applied glazing beads. Stiles
are usually designated by function, such as lock stile,
hinge stile or meeting stile.
Stool - The narrow shelf fitted
on the inside of a window which butts against the
Stop - The molding on the inside
of a window frame against which the window sash closes;
in the case of a double-hung window, the sash slides
against the stop. Also used to describe a glazing
Storm Windows - A second set of
windows installed on the outside or inside of the
primary windows to provide additional insulation and
Strike - Typically the portion of
the lock that engages the keeper in the jamb or mullion.
Subframe - A supporting frame installed
prior to installing a finished door frame.
Subsill - An aluminum extruded profile
installed beneath the primary sill of a framing system
specifically designed to function as a secondary defense
for collecting infiltrated water which is then weeped
to the exterior.
Sun Control Film - A tinted or reflective
film applied to the glazing surface to reduce visible,
ultra-violet, or total transmission of solar radiation.
Reduces solar heat gain in summer and glare. Some
can be removed and reapplied with changing seasons.
Superwindow - A window with a very
low U-factor, typically less than 0.15, achieved through
the use of multiple glazings, low-E coatings, and
Sweep Strip or Door Sweep - A weatherstrip
mounted at the top or bottom edge of a swing door.
Swing - The direction a swing door
opens. Also see Hand of Door.
Switchable Glazings - Glazings with
optical properties that can be reversibly switched
from clear to dark or reflective.
Temper (Aluminum) - Process used
to bring a proper degree of hardness or elasticity
by heat treatment. T5 - Artificially aged to improve
mechanical properties and stability. T6 - Solution
treated and artificially aged to improve the allowable
stresses and consequently the capacity to resist greater
Tempered Glass - Strong, break-resistant
glass created in a secondary process via controlled
air cooling of the heated glass. Tempered glass is
four times stronger than annealed glass; a form of
safety glazing. When shattered, it breaks into small
Tempering - Strengthening glass
with heat and controlled air cooling.
Template (For Hardware) - A master
pattern or scaled drawing showing all dimensions and
hole spacing for hardware application.
Template Hardware - Hardware manufactured
within template tolerances.
Tenon - A rectangular projection
cut out of a piece of wood for insertion into a mortise.
Thermal Break - An insulating material
of low-thermal conductivity placed between materials
of high conductivity within the system itself to inhibit
the flow of cold or heat.
Thermal Cavity - The hollow, channel
or void provided in the extruded framing member into
which the liquid-thermal-break material is poured.
Thermal Expansion and Contraction
- An increase in the dimensions of a material in direct
proportion to the rise in its temperature and conversely
a dimensional shrinking as a result of a drop in temperature.
Thermal Mass - Mass in a building
(furnishings or structure) that is used to absorb
solar gain during the day and release the heat as
the space cools in the evening.
Thermal Resistance - The ability
of a material to impede the flow of heat. See R-Value.
Thermal Stress - Strain on the edges
of a glass pane caused by the faster expansion rate
of the center of the light when exposed to heat.
Thermal Transmittance (U-Value)
- The time rate of heat flow per unit area under steady
state conditions through a body for a unit-air temperature
difference on the two sides of the body.
Thermally Improved - Framing systems
which for the most part have a continuous thermal
isolator between the exterior and interior aluminum
framing members, but which have intermittent contact
between the exterior and interior by a highly conductive
material such as aluminum or a steel fastener.
Thermochromics - Glazing with optical
properties that can change in response to temperature
Threshold - The member that lies
at the bottom of a sliding glass door or swinging
door; the sill of a doorway.
Throw - The distance which a lock
bolt or latch bolt projects when in the locked position.
Thumbturn - A permanently attached
small lever which, when turned, operates the bolt
on a dead lock in the same manner as a key.
Tilt window - A single- or double-hung
window whose operable sash can be tilted into the
room for interior washability.
Tinted glass - Glass colored by
incorporation of a mineral admixture. Any tinting
reduces both visual and radiant transmittance.
Translucent - A glazing such as
frosted glass, which transmits electromagnetic radiation
(light) but causes scattering so that a clear image
cannot be seen.
Transmittance - The percentage of
radiation that can pass through glazing. Transmittance
can be defined for different types of light or energy,
e.g., visible light transmittance, UV transmittance,
or total solar energy transmittance.
Transom Bar - The horizontal frame
member (header) which separates the door opening from
Transom Window - The window sash
located above a door. Also called transom light.
Transparent - Clear glazing that
transmits light without diffusion for a clear view.
Trim Hardware - Decorative finish
hardware used to operate functional hardware or the
Triple Glazing - Three panes of
glass or plastic with two air spaces between.
True Divided Light (TDL) - A term
which refers to windows in which multiple individual
panes of glass or lights are assembled in the sash
U-Factor - NFRC simulated overall
coefficient of heat, transmittance of heat flow measured
in BTU/hr-ft2-F. Lower U-factors indicate better performance.
U-Value - Measures the heat transfer
through a material due to the difference in air temperatures
on the two sides. (Lower U-values indicate better
performance.) Also see Thermal Transmittance.
U.L. - Underwriters' Laboratories,
Ultraviolet Light (UV) - The invisible
rays of the spectrum that are outside of the visible
spectrum at its short-wavelength violet end. Ultraviolet
rays are found in everyday sunlight and cause paint
finishes, carpets, and fabrics to fade.
Uniform Building Code (UBC) - The
building code generally used in the western United
States, developed by the International Conference
of Building Officials (ICBO) in Whittier, CA. Area
of influence: Regions in the United States west of
the Mississippi River. Replaced by ICC.
Uniform Construction Index - CSI
format system to standardize classification of construction-related
products; united inches the sum total of one window
width and one window height expressed in inches.
Valley - The trough or gutter formed
by the intersection of two inclined planes on a roof.
The inclined planes are perpendicular to each other.
Vapor Retarder - A material that
reduces the diffusion of water vapor across a building
Vault - An arched structure forming
the supporting structure of a ceiling or roof.
Veneer - A thin surface layer glued
to a base of inferior material. To overlay (a surface)
with a thin layer of a fine or decorative material.
Vent - The operating portion of
a window that slides, swings or projects in or out.
Vent Unit - A window or door that
opens to provide ventilation.
Vestibule - A small entrance hall
or passage between the outer door and the interior
of a building.
Vinyl - Polyvinyl chloride material,
which can be both rigid or flexible, used for window
Visible Light - The portion of the
electromagnetic spectrum that produces light that
can be seen. Wavelengths range from 380 to 720 nanometers.
Visible Light Transmittance - Visible
Light Transmittance (VT) measures how much light comes
through a product. The visible transmittance is an
optical property that indicates the amount of visible
Warm-Edge Technology - The use of
low-conductance spacers to reduce heat transfer near
the edge of insulated glazing.
Wave-Length Selective - "Intelligent"
coatings such as Low-E allow for glazing combinations
to permit selective gain or shielding of the sun's
heat, while letting in visible light.
Weatherstripping - A strip of resilient
material for covering the joint between the window
sash and frame in order to reduce air leaks and prevent
water from entering the structure.
Wedge Glazing - A flexible, continuous
gasket that ensures a high-compression seal between
the glass and glazing bead by applying pressure.
Weep Hole - A small opening in a
wall or window sill member through which water may
drain to the building exterior.
Windload - Force exerted on a surface
by moving air.
Windload Formula - Formula used
to relate wind speed to wind loads. MPH = Sqrt (PSF/.00256).
Window - A glazed opening in an
external wall of a building; an entire unit consisting
of a frame sash and glazing, and any operable elements.
Window Hardware - Various devices
and mechanisms for the window including catches, fasteners
and locks, hinges, pivots, lifts and pulls, pulleys
and sash weights, sash balances, and stays. Always
expressed as width first, then height.
Windowpane Divider - See Muntin.
Wire Glass - 1/4" clear or
obscure glass having a layer of diamond or square
pattern wire mesh embedded in the glass lite.