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1) How to Install A Replacement Window

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Seal Beach,
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Laguna Niguel,
Laguna Hills,
Laguna Woods,
San Clemente,
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Dana Point,
Ladera Ranch,
Coto de Caza,
Dove Canyon,
La Palma,
West Minister,
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Portola Hills,
Foothill Ranch,
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Santa Ana,
Beverly Hills,
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Windows Doors Orange County - "We Love Windows and Doors!"

Windows and Doors Beyond expectations! Since 1979 Windows Doors Orange County .com has been providing the customers of Orange County, San Diego, Los Angeles, Riverside and the surrounding areas with quality windows and doors.

We pay attention to customer satisfaction. We're not satisfied until you are! At Windows Doors Orange County .com, we treat all of our customers as if they were VIPs because our customers are certainly special to us. Come to us for first-class customer service!

All Vinyl, fiberglass and WoodClad windows and doors are backed by the industry-leading Full Lifetime Guarantee offered by Milgard, International Windows, American Integrity, CertainTeed and Superior. If anything ever goes wrong with one of our products in a single-family home, we'll fix it for as long as the original owner lives there. Parts and labor included.

We install and sell the following types of products: * Fiberglass Windows & Doors - Ultra WoodClad Series * Vinyl Windows & Doors - Classic & Style Line Series * Aluminum Windows * Acrylic Block Windows * Entry Doors - Please view a more complete list of products and services below.

At Windows Doors Orange County .com we carry the best quality windows and doors, ensuring your total satisfaction with each and every product. We can install everything we sell, so you don't have to worry about finding a contractor to do the job. Our premium merchandise includes: * Milgard Windows * Andersen Windows * CertainTeed Windows * International Windows * American Integrity * Atrium * Coastline Windows * Superior Patio Doors * And many more All the brands that we carry are energy efficient, which translates into saving for you.

Go for the gold! Our Low Overhead allows for Incredible Pricing. We service Orange County, San Diego, Riverside, Los Angeles and beyond. "We would love to help you with your windows and doors!"

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The highest compliment our clients can give us is the referral of
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(949) 369-0500

We install and sell the following types of window and door products:
Milgard Windows and Doors - Milgard Dealer
Milgard Lifetime Lifetime Guarantee
Anderson Windows and Doors - Come home to Anderson - JD Powers
Atrium Windows and Doors - the largest manufacturer of vinyl and aluminum windows and patio doors in North America.
Ply-Gem Windows and Doors - Quality made Certain, Satisfaction guaranTeed
American Integrity Windows and Doors - Our innovation in window design is changing the way you view vinyl windows
Atech Industries Windows and Doors
Simonton Windows and Doors
Oceanside Aluminum - Custom Luxury Window and Door Manufacturer
Superior Windows and Doors
Hy-Lite Products Windows and Doors
US Block Windows
Art Glass Ect, Inc. - Hand Crafted Stained Glass Windows
La Cantina Doors - Bi-Folding Doors
Pella Windows and Doors - Elite Clad and Wood Products
Emtek Door Hardware - Buy from us, you get fantastic discounts
Single hung windows
Double hung tilt windows
Horizontal slider windows
Picture windows
Awning windows
Radius windows
Casement windows
Bay windows, Garden Windows
Bow windows
Gliding windows
Specialty windows
Roof windows
Replacement windows, Retrofit Windows
Fixed windows
Indoor pool windows and doors
Geometric windows
Sound suppression windows
Curved glass windows
New construction windows, builder series windows
Round top windows
Panel and partition windows
Solar Block windows
Block windows
Commercial block wall window
Circle top windows, radius windows
Hand crafted stained glass windows
Tilt and slide window
Tilt and turn window
Clerestory window
Roof Lantern window, Cupola window
Single-hung sash window
Horizontal sliding sash window
Double-hung sash window
Emergency exit window / egress window
Multi-lit window
French windows
Oriel window
Jalousie window, louvred window
Don't see a window or door you need?
Call (949) 369-0500.

Windows Doors Orange County .com offers a wide range of solutions to the literally thousands of window and door possibilities for your home, business or organization.
Vinyl Windows - are virtually maintenance-free for a lifetime of enjoyment
Vinyl Patio Doors - Fiberglass frames so tough, they cut them with diamond-blade saws.
Fiberglass Windows - the ultimate window and door frame material.

Fiberglass patio doors

Fiberglass entry doors
Wood windows
Wood french doors
Aluminum windows
Aluminum patio doors
Sound control windows
Soundproof windows, soundproof doors
Replacement windows
Residential windows, Residential Doors
Single panel hinged patio doors
Multiple panel hinged patio doors
Gliding Patio Doors, Sliding Patio Doors
Sidelights and stationary panels
Transoms stationary windows
Commercial entry doors
Sliding Glass Doors, Arcadia door
Swinging French Doors
Garage Doors, up-and-over door
Hinged Patio Doors
Aliminum clad / wood swinging doors
Pocketing door system
Door lites
Wood Entry Doors
Commercial Security Metal Doors
Residential Metal Doors
Aluminum Entry Doors
Vinyl Entry Doors
Fiberglass Entry Doors
Stained Glass Entry Doors
French Doors
Curved Doors
Stable door
Blind door
Louver door
Flush door
Ledge and brace door
Bypass door
Butterfly Door
Automatic doors
Bifold door
Pocket door
Revolving door
Tambour door
Selfbolting door
Inward opening doors
Swing door
Curved Doors
Milgard SunCoat Low-E - Cuts heating and cooling losses standard on all Milgard windows
Milgard SunCoatMAX™ Low-E - A marvelous solution to reject the sun's heat and damaging rays, while keeping your home cooler and more comfortable.
Insulated window frames
Bullet Proof Glass Windows
Andersen High-Performance™ Low-E4™ glass Get windows that stay cleaner, dry faster for easy cleaning and that have up to 99% less water spots. Low-E4™ glass can reduce energy bills by 25% in the summer and 10% in the winter. Tax credit is for the cost of the product only




Serving Orange County California and beyond: Mission Viejo, Rancho Santa Margarita,
Lake Forest, Irvine, San Juan Capistrano, Newport Beach, Huntington Beach, Laguna Beach, Anaheim, Fullerton, Orange, Garden Grove, Santa Ana, Placentia, Tustin, Seal Beach, Costa Mesa, Yorba Linda, Brea, Aliso Viejo, Laguna Niguel, Laguna Hills, Laguna Woods, San Clemente, Villa Park, Dana Point, Ladera Ranch, Talega, Coto de Caza, Dove Canyon, La Palma, West Minister, La Habra, Fountain Valley, Cypress, Stanton, Lemon Heights, Portola Hills, Foothill Ranch, La Palma, Santa Ana, Oceanside, San Diego, Riverside, Los Angeles.


A window is an opening in an otherwise solid and opaque surface that allows the passage of light and, if not closed or sealed, air and sound. Windows are usually glazed or covered in some other transparent or translucent material. Windows are held in place by frames, which prevent them from collapsing.

Types of windows

A window is an opening in a wall that lets light and possibly air into the room and allows occupants to see out. Primitive windows were just holes. Later, they were covered with animal hide, cloth, or wood. Shutters that could be opened and closed came next. Over time, windows were built that both protected the inhabitants from the elements and transmitted light: mullioned glass windows, which joined multiple small pieces of glass with leading, paper windows, flattened pieces of translucent animal horn, and plates of thinly sliced marble. Mullioned glass windows were the windows of choice among European well-to-do, whereas paper windows were economical and widely used in ancient China and Japan. In England, glass became common in the windows of ordinary homes only in the early 17th century whereas windows made up of panes of flattened animal horn were used as early as the 14th century in Northern Britain. Modern-style floor-to-ceiling windows became possible only after the industrial glass making process was perfected. Evidence of glass window panes in Italy dates back nearly 3000 years.

Modern windows are customarily large rectangles or squares with glass surfaces. Churches traditionally have stained glass windows. Modern domestic windows come in many styles. The choice of design varies throughout the world, and is largely dictated by the prevailing weather conditions. Coastal climates tend to have smaller outward-opening windows due to the stronger winds experienced - e.g. England. Continental climates tend to have larger windows, many of which open inwards - e.g. France and Germany. Styles available include:

Double-hung sash window The traditional style of window in the USA, and many other places that were formerly colonized by the UK, with two parts (sashes) that overlap slightly and slide up and down inside the frame. The two parts are not necessarily the same size. Nowadays, most new double-hung sash windows use spring balances to support the sashes, but traditionally, counterweights held in boxes either side of the window were used. These were and are attached to the sashes using pulleys of either braided cord or, later, purpose-made chain. Double-hung sash windows were traditionally often fitted with shutters. Sash windows may be fitted with simplex hinges which allow the window to be locked into hinges on one side, while the rope on the other side is detached, allowing the window to be opened for escape or cleaning.

Single-hung sash window One sash is movable (usually the bottom one) and the other fixed. This is the earlier form of sliding sash window, and is obviously also cheaper.

Horizontal sliding sash window Has two or more sashes that overlap slightly but slide horizontally within the frame. In the UK, these are sometimes called Yorkshire sash windows, presumably because of their traditional use in that county.

Casement window A window with a hinged sash that swings in or out like a door comprising either a side-hung, top-hung, or occasionally bottom-hung sash or a combination of these types, sometimes with fixed panels on one or more sides of the sash. In the USA these are usually opened using a crank, but in Europe they tend to use projection friction stays and espagnolette locking. Formerly, plain hinges were used with a casement stay. Handing applies to casement windows to determine direction of swing. A top hung hinged sash is also called an AWNING window.

Tilt and slide window A window (more usually a door-sized window) where the sash tilts inwards at the top and then slides horizontally behind the fixed pane.

Tilt and turn window A window which can either tilt inwards at the top, or can open inwards hinged at the side.

Transom window A window above a door; if an exterior door the transom window is often fixed, if an interior door it can often open either by hinges at top or bottom, or can rotate about hinges at the middle of its sides. It provided ventilation before forced air heating and cooling.

Jalousie window Also known as a louvred window, this window is comprised of many slats of glass that open and close like a Venetian blind, usually using a crank or a lever. The hinges may be at the top or middle of the short end of the slats of glass. They are used extensively in tropical and subtropical architecture, for instance, throughout the Philippines and in Queensland, Australia. A Jalousie door is a door with a Jalousie window.

Clerestory window A vertical window set in a roof structure or high in a wall, used for daylighting.

Skylight A flat or sloped window built into a roof structure that is out of reach for daylighting.

Roof Window A sloped window built into a roof structure that is in reach for daylighting.

Roof Lantern or Cupola A roof lantern is a multi-paned glass structure, resembling a small building, built on a roof for day or moon light. Sometimes includes an additional clerestory. May also be called a cupola.

Bay window A multi-panel window, with at least three panels set at different angles to create a protrusion from the wall line.

Oriel window A window with many panels. It is most often seen in the typical Tudor-style house and monasterie. An oriel window projects from the wall and does not extend to the ground. Oriel windows originated as a form of porch. They are often supported by brackets or corbels. Buildings in the Gothic Revival style often have oriel windows.

Fixed window A window that cannot be opened, whose function is limited to allowing light to enter. Clerestory windows are often fixed. Transom windows may be fixed or operable.

Picture window A very large fixed window in a wall, typically without glazing bars, or glazed with only perfunctory glazing bars near the edge of the window. Picture windows are intended to provide an unimpeded view, as if framing a picture.

Multi-lit window A window glazed with small panes of glass separated by wooden or lead "glazing bars", or "muntins", arranged in a decorative "glazing pattern" often dictated by the architectural style at use. Due to the historic unavailability of large panes of glass, this was the prevailing style of window until the beginning of the twentieth century, and is traditionally still used today.

Emergency exit window / egress window A window big enough and low enough so that occupants can escape through the opening in an emergency, such as a fire. In the United States, exact specifications for emergency windows in bedrooms are given in many building codes. Vehicles, such as buses and aircraft, frequently have emergency exit windows as well.

Stained glass window A window composed of pieces of colored glass, transparent or opaque, frequently portraying persons or scenes. Typically the glass in these windows is separated by lead glazing bars. Stained glass windows were popular in Victorian houses and some Wrightian houses, and are especially common in churches.

Insulated window frames Windows can be a significant source of heat transfer. Different kinds of glazing and window frames can reduce thermal losses and gains. Frames and sashes are traditionally made of wood, but metal, vinyl or PVC, and composites are also common. The cost and availability of may vary from country to country. Solid metal frames and sashes are poor insulators because metals conduct heat quickly. Vinyl frames are popular in Europe because they conduct heat poorly. Wood is also a good insulator. Composite frames may combine materials to obtain aesthetics of one material with the functional benefits of another. Modern metal window parts typically consist of two surfaces separated by insulating spacer material. Many windows have movable window coverings such as blinds or curtains to keep out light, provide additional insulation, or ensure privacy. Air infiltration and hence convective heat losses can be reduce by good window seals and attention to construction. Evacuated or argon-filled Insulated glazing units are also dependent on meticulous frame construction to prevent entry of air and loss of efficiency.


Here is a quick and easy guide for installing vinyl replacement windows.


Remove Old Window
  1. Carefully remove inside trim, moldings, and/or stops with broad chisel, and save for later use.
  2. Remove old cords and weights (or spring balances) from bottom sash and carefully remove from frame.
  3. Pry out parting stops at top and sides to allow removal of top sash. Be sure not to damage existing stops or openings.
  4. If existing window is fitted with aluminum tracks, remove securing staples, and remove both sashes and track.
Clean and Prepare Opening
  1. For Mechanical Windows, Casement Windows, or Slider Windows, install Sill angle on sill 1/8" behind Blindstop. For all Welded Windows, snap angle to bottom of window frame.
  2. Close and lock window sashes. Set new window in opening to verify all correct measurements. Remove window from opening.
  3. Fill empty weight cavities with fiberglass insulation. You can use the rope from the weights (cut weight off the end) tied to the insulation to pull it up through the frame cavity.
  4. Add a generous amount of caulk to the inside and outside edge of the stool. Also, add caulk to the outside blindstops and along the top of the opening's header.
  5. If needed, place head expander on top of window and caulk along the top surface. A layer of insulation between the head expander and frame may be added if necessary. Expander legs may also be easily trimmed with a utility knife to accommodate various heights.

Install New Window

  1. From the interior wall side, set window (be sure sashes are still locked) into openings and butt the exterior window frame up against the opening blindstops. For Mechanical Windows, do not cut black band until window is installed in opening.
  2. Check the window for plumb and level. Add shims where necessary. It is highly recommended that shims be placed at the middle of the frame and at the middle of the top and bottom sashes. Also, install shims behind screw holes to prevent screw tightening from warping frame.
  3. Locate the pre-drilled screw holes on the sides of window frame. For Mechanical and Welded series, holes will be located at the top and bottom of both frames sides (oversize windows may also have pre-drilled holes in frame top). For Sliders, Casement windows and oversize windows, remove factory installed screw caps from top and sides.
  4. Secure window to opening by installing screws (supplied) through the screw holes into the frame opening. Re-install screw caps.
  5. If installing a head expander, raise expander until it is flush with top of opening. Drill pilot holes and secure to frame with small screws al lowest part of expander.
  6. Replace inside stop (moldings) if necessary.
  7. Install insulation around the entire window between the frame and opening. Be careful, installing too much insulation on top and bottom may cause window to bow.


  • Before you remove your old window, it is important that you do the following:
    • Measure the window opening to ensure that you purchase the correct size window. Measure in three spots for both the width and the height. Measure the top; the middle and the bottom for width. Measure the right side; the left side and the middle for height. When ordering/purchasing your new vinyl replacement windows, ALWAYS use the SMALLEST measurements.
    • Measure the window itself to ensure that it will fit into the desired window opening. Window should be approximately 1/4" less than the opening width and height.


  • Always wear safety goggles, gloves and face mask during removal and installation of windows.

A door is a panel or barrier, usually hinged, sliding, or electronic, that is used to cover an opening in a wall or partition going into a building or space. A door can be opened to give access and closed more or less securely. The term door is also applied to the opening itself, more properly known as the doorway. Doors are nearly universal in buildings of all kinds, allowing passage between the inside and outside, and between internal rooms. When open, they admit ventilation and light. The purpose of a door closure is primarily to give occupants of a space privacy and security by regulating access. For this purpose doors are equipped with a variety of fittings ranging from simple latches to locks.

The door is used to control the physical atmosphere within a space by enclosing it, excluding air drafts, so that interiors may be more effectively heated or cooled. Doors are significant in preventing the spread of fire. Doors also have an aesthetic role in creating an impression of what lies beyond. They are also used to screen areas of a building for aesthetic purposes, keeping formal and utility areas separate. They act as a barrier to noise. Doors are often symbolically endowed with ritual purposes, and the guarding or receiving of the keys to a door, or being granted access to a door can have special significance. [1] Similarly, doors and doorways frequently appear in metaphorical or allegorical situations, literature and the arts, often as a portent of change. When framed in wood for snug fitting of a door, the doorway consists of two vertical jambs on either side, a lintel or head jamb at the top, and perhaps a threshold at the bottom. When a door has more than one movable panel, one of the panels may be called a leaf.

Types of doors

A door may slide along tracks, pivot on hinges, fold. The door may also slide between two wall panels (pocket door). In the case of rotation, the axis is usually vertical, but e.g. for garage doors often horizontal, above the door opening. Sometimes the axis of rotation is, with a special construction, not in the plane of the door, on the other side than that in which the door opens, to reduce the space required on the side to which the door opens. This is sometimes the case in a train, for the door to the toilet, opening inward. Many kinds of doors have specific names, depending on their purpose. The most common variety of door consists of a single rigid panel that fills the doorway, hinged along one side so that it can fold away from the doorway in one direction but not in the other. Many variations on this basic design are possible, such as "double" doors that have two adjacent independent panels hinged on each side of the doorway.

A trapdoor is a door that is oriented horizontally in a floor or ceiling, often accessed via a ladder.

A stable door is divided in half horizontally. The top half can be opened to allow the horse to be fed, while the bottom half can be closed to keep the animal inside. Stable doors are also known as dutch doors.

A swing door has special hinges that allow it to open either outwards or inwards, and is usually sprung to keep it closed. Saloon doors are a pair of lightweight swing doors often found in public bars. Saloon doors, also known as cafe doors, often use double action hinges, which will return the door to the center, regardless of which direction it is opened, due to the double action springs in the doors.

A blind door is a door with no visible trim or operable components. It is designed to blend with the adjacent wall in all finishes, and visually to be a part of the wall, a disguised door.

An up-and-over door is often used in garages. Instead of hinges it has a mechanism, often counterbalanced or sprung, that allows it to be lifted so that it rests horizontally above the opening. Also known as an overhead door.

A barn door is a door on a barn. It is often/always found on barns, and because of a barn's immense size (often) doors are subsequently big for utility.

A French door, also called a French window, is a door that has multiple windows ("lights") set into it, the full length of the door. Traditional French doors are assembled from individual small pieces of glass and mullions. These doors are also known as true divided lite[sic] French doors. French doors made of double-pane glass (on exterior doors for insulation reasons) may have a decorative grille embedded between the panes, or may also be true divided lite French doors. The decorative grille may also be superimposed on top of single pane of glass in the door.

A louver door has fixed or movable wooden fins (often called slats or louvers) which permit open ventilation whilst preserving privacy and preventing the passage of light to the interior. Being relatively weak structures, they are most commonly used for wardrobes and drying rooms, where security is of less importance than good ventilation, although a very similar structure is commonly used to form window shutters.

A flush door is a completely smooth door, having plywood or MDF fixed over a light timber frame, the hollow parts of which are often filled with a cardboard core material. Flush doors are most commonly employed in the interior of a dwelling, although slightly more substantial versions are occasionally used as exterior doors, especially within hotels and other buildings containing many independent dwellings.

A moulded door has the same structure as that of flush door. The only difference is that the surface material is a moulded skin made of HDF / MDF. It is commonly used as interior doors.

A ledge and brace door is a door made from multiple vertical planks fixed together by two horizontal planks (the ledges) and kept square by a diagonal plank (the brace).

A garden door is any door that opens to a garden or backyard. It is often used specifically for double French doors in place of a sliding glass door. In such a configuration, it has the advantage of a very large opening for moving large objects in and out.

A pet door is an opening in a door to allow pets to enter and exit without the main door being opened. It may be simply covered by a rubber flap or it may be an actual door hinged on the top that the pet can push through. Pet doors may be mounted in a sliding glass door as a new (permanent or temporary) panel. Pet doors may be unidirectional, only allowing pets to exit. Pet doors may be electronic, only allowing pets with a special electronic tag to enter.

A bifold door is door unit that has 2 to 4 sections, folding in pairs. The doors can open from either side for one pair, or fold off both sides for two pairs. Wood is the most common material, and doors may also be metal or glass. Bifolds are most commonly made for closets, but may also be used as units between rooms.

A bypass door is a door unit that has 2 or more sections. The doors can slide from each direction on an overhead track, sliding past each other. They are most commonly used in closets, in order to access one side of the closet at a time. The doors in a bypass unit will overlap slightly, in order not to have a gap between them.

A pocket door is a door that slides on rails, rather than swinging on hinges, and, when opened, slides into an open cavity within a wall.

A sliding glass door, sometimes called an Arcadia door, is a door made of glass that slides open and sometimes has a screen. Sliding glass doors are common in many houses, particularly as an entrance to the backyard. Such doors are also popular for use for the entrances to commercial structures.

A false door is a wall decoration that looks like a door. In ancient Egyptian architecture, this was a common element in a tomb, the false door representing a gate to the afterlife. They can also be found in the funerary architecture of the desert tribes (e.g., Libyan Ghirza). It may have influenced the mihrab in a mosque.

A revolving door typically consists of three or four doors (wings/leaves) that hang on a center shaft and rotate one way about a vertical axis. Between the point of access and the point of exit the user walks through an airlock. The door may be motorized, or manually people use pushbars. People can walk out and into the building at the same time. Revolving doors are a good air seal from the outside. Also minimize A/C and Heating Costs climate control from the building. This type of door is also often seen as a mark of prestige and glamour for a building and it not unusual for neighbouring buildings to install their own revolving doors when a rival building gets one.

A Butterfly Door is so-called because of its two "wings". It consists of a double-wide panel with its rotation axle in the centre, effectively creating two separate openings when the door is opened. Butterfly doors are made to rotate open in one direction (usually counterclockwise), and rotate closed in the opposite direction. The door is not equipped with handles, so it is a "push" door. This is for safety, because if it could open in both directions, someone approaching the door might be caught off guard by someone else opening the other side, thus impacting the first person. Such doors are popular in public transit stations, as it has a large capacity, and when the door is opened, traffic passing in both directions keeps the door open. They are particularily popular in underground subway stations, because they are heavy, and when air currents are created by the movement of trains, the force will be applied to both wings of the door, thus equalizing the force on either side, keeping the door shut.

Automatic doors are powered open and closed, a door fitted with a spring to close it is not an automatic door. There are three methods by which an automatic door is activated.

Inward opening doors are doors that can only be opened or forced open from outside a building. Such doors pose a substantial fire risk to occupants of occupied buildings when they are locked. As such doors can only be forced open from the outside, those within buildings are prevented from escape, unless people outside the building can force the doors open and off their hinges as there is no way to lever a door open from inside.

A tambour door is made of narrow horizontal slats and rolls up and down along vertical tracks and is typically found in entertainment centres and cabinets.

A selfbolting door is a door that has special hinges that allow door leaf to slide at the place of the bolt after complet closing.


AAMA - American Architectural Manufacturers Association is a trade association of firms engaged in the manufacturing and sale of architectural building components and related products.

Absorptance - The ratio of radiant energy absorbed to total incident radiant energy in a glazing system.

Acoustic Windows - Windows used to help reduce the amount of sound that enters the home.

Acrylic - A general purpose glazing material with excellent optical clarity, weather durability, good chemical resistance and thermoformability.

Active Leaf - Usually the first operating leaf in a door having a pair of leaves; the leaf to which the latching or locking mechanism is attached.

ADA Threshold - A wheelchair-accessible door threshold. This type of threshold is not to exceed 3/4" in height for exterior sliding doors or 1/2" for other types of doors.

Aerogel - A microporous, transparent silicate foam used as a glazing cavity fill material, offering possible U-values below 0.10 BTU/(h-sq ft-°F) or 0.56 W/(sq m-°C).

AIA - American Institute of Architects.

AIF - Acoustic Insulation Factor, a sound-transmission measure used in Canada.

Air Infiltration - The amount doors (the lower, the better) of air leaking in and out of a building through cracks in walls, windows.

Air Leakage - The volume of air which flows through a closed window or door in a given length of time as a result of the difference in air pressure on its opposite faces.

Allowable Stress - The maximum unit stress permitted under working loads by codes and specifications.

Alloy - A composition of two or more metals to obtain a desired property.

Ambient Temperature - Temperature at a given set of environmental conditions. Typically, the surrounding localized air temperature.

Anchor - Any device used to secure a building part or component to adjoining construction or to a supporting member.

Anneal - To soften a metal piece and remove internal stresses by heating the piece to its critical temperature and allowing it to cool very slowly.

Annealed Glass - Glass that has not been heat-treated and is essentially strain free; often referred to as " float glass."

Annealing - Heating above the critical or recrystallization temperature, then controlled cooling of metal, glass, or other materials to eliminate the effects of cold-working, relieving internal stresses, ductility, or other properties.

Anodic Coating - The surface finish resulting from anodizing. Coatings may be produced by clear, integral color or electrolytically deposited color processes. Also see Anodize.

Anodize - A process that provides a hard durable oxide film on the surface of aluminum. This coating can produce coloring and finishing that both protects and beautifies the aluminum.

ANSI - American National Standards Institute is an independent association of trade organizations, technical societies, professional groups and consumer organizations which establishes and publishes standards at the national level.

Apron - The finished board placed against the wall surface immediately below a window stool.

Arch Window - Half-circle picture window.

Argon - An inert, non-toxic gas used in insulating glass units to reduce heat transfer.

ASCE - American Society of Civil Engineers.

ASHRAE - American Society of Heating, Refrigeration and Air Conditioning Engineers.

ASTM - American Society for Testing and Materials. A nonprofit organization that establishes standard tests and specifications for construction materials; such tests and specifications usually are referred to by the abbreviation ASTM followed by a numerical designation.

Astragal - The center member of a double door, which is attached to the fixed or inactive door panel.

Attenuation - Reduction in strength of sound measured in decibels (dBs).

Automatic Operator - Power-operated, door-activated device and control, actuated by approaching traffic or remote switch.

Awning Window - A type of window with a top-hinged sash that swings out at the bottom.

Back Bedding - The process of adhering and sealing glass to a frame or sash.

Backer Rod - A round, compressible material, either open or closed cell, that’s placed into voids between materials to insulate and allow a backing for the application of sealant.

Baffle - A material used in windows and doors to impede the flow of water or air into the framing system through weep slots.

Balance - A mechanical device (normally spring-loaded) used in single- and double-hung windows as a means of counterbalancing the weight of the sash during operation.

Balance Shoe - Nylon hardware that slides in hung window jambs and connects the balance with the sash.

Bay Window - A composite of three windows, usually made up of a large center unit and two flanking units at 30- or 45-degree angles to the wall. A bay projects from the wall of the structure.

Bead - A molding or stop placed around a window frame to hold the glass in place by pressure.

Bearing Wall - A wall that supports loads in addition to its own weight.

Billet - A cylindrical-shaped section of aluminum alloy used as the starting stock in an extrusion.

Bite - Distance by which the inner edge of the aluminum frame glazing pocket or stop overlaps the glass. Also termed purchase, edge cover or engagement.

Bituminous Paint - A low-cost paint containing asphalt or coal tar used to isolate aluminum from mortar, concrete or masonry.

Block Frame - Non-finned frame that can be used as new or retrofit installation in a block (concrete) wall application or as a wood window replacement frame.

BOCA National Codes - A series of performance-oriented model A series of performance-oriented model codes responsive to the latest advancements in construction technology. Building Officials and Code Administrators (BOCA) International, Inc. was founded in 1915. Area of influence: Northeast region of the U.S. Replaced by ICC codes.

Bond - The joining together of building materials to ensure solidity.

Bond Breaker - A release type of material used to prevent adhesion of the sealant to the back-up material.

Bottom Rail - The bottom horizontal member of a window sash.

Bow Window - A composite of four or more window units in a radial or bow formation gently curved contour. Bow windows also project from the walls of the structure.

Brake Metal Shape - Aluminum sheet stock bent or "broken" to desired shape, as required by specific job conditions, on a power or manual press brake. This shape is often used to cover conditions which cannot be covered by a stock extruded aluminum shape.

Brick Molding - A standard trim piece that covers the gap between the window frame and masonry.

Btu (B.T.U.) - An abbreviation for British Thermal Unit, the heat required to increase the temperature of one pound of water one-degree Fahrenheit.

Bull Nose - Convex rounding of a member, such as an extruded aluminum snap-on radius face cover used on aluminum-curtain walls.

Butt Hinge - A hinge designed for application to the edge of a door consisting of two rectangular metal plates joined together with a pin.

Butt Hung Door - A door hung on butt hinges.

Butt Joint - A meeting of two members squarely.

Butyl - A synthetic rubber formed by the co-polymerization of isobutylene with isoprene. It is used as a sealant and as an architectural glazing tape.

Cantilever - A beam, girder or truss overhanging one or more supports.

Casement handing - Side that the hinge in on. For residential windows, the hinge side is looking from the outside. For commercial windows, the hinge side is looking from the inside.

Casement Window - The whole sash swings in or out from the jamb of the window and it either uses a crank-out system or a friction system of operation. It’s the best window choice for catching breezes and providing cross-ventilation.

Casing - Exposed molding or framing around a window or door, on either the inside or outside to cover the space between the window frame or jamb and the wall.

Caulking - Sealants used to seal fixed and movable construction joints to prevent infiltration.

Center of Glass - All-glass area of a window except that within 2.5" (10cm) from the edge of the glass – used in measuring and calculating glazing performance such as R-values and U-values.

CFM - Cubic Feet per Minute.

Chamfer - To bevel a sharp external edge. A beveled edge.

Check Rail - The bottom horizontal member of the upper sash and the top horizontal member of the lower sash which meet at the middle of a double-hung window.

Cladding - An exterior covering or skin applied to framing or a structure for aesthetic or protective purposes.

Clerestory Window - A window placed vertically in a wall above one's line of vision to provide natural light -- often at the intersection of two offset roof planes.

CMR - Centerline of Meeting Rail – a reference line used to locate integral mullions and/or size oriel (unequal) sash, e.g., "the height of the lower sash shall be 22" from the frame sill to CMR."

Column - A structural vertical compression member. It is usually a long and slender post or pillar.

Compatibility - The ability of two or more materials to exist in close and permanent association for an indefinite period with no adverse effect on one another.

Composite Frame - A frame consisting of two or more materials; For example, a white interior with a beige exterior.

Compression Gasket - A method of securing the glass into the aluminum frame glazing pocket by using a soft gasket on one side of the glass and a firm, dense gasket called a wedge on the other. Also see Wedge Glazing.

Condensation - The change of a gas to a liquid state. Because warm air can hold more water vapor than cold air, as warm air cools, its ability to hold water vapor is reduced. Excess moisture condenses on the warm side of glass. E.g., condensation on the outside of a glass of ice water.

Condensation Gutter - A trough for carrying off condensed or infiltrated water; this may be drained to the exterior or allowed to evaporate.

Condensation Resistance F - Condensation Resistance Factor (CRF) measures the ability of a product to resist the formation of condensation on the interior surface of the product.

Conduction - A process of heat transfer whereby heat moves directly through a material by molecular agitation. The handle of a cast-iron frying pan becomes hot due to conduction.

Conductivity - The transfer of heat through a given material – see U-value which is the measure of conductivity, the inverse of R-value.

Convection - A heat-transfer process involving motion in a fluid (such as air) caused by the difference in density of the fluid and the action of gravity. Convection affects heat transfer from the glass surface to room air as well as between two panes of glass.

Cope - To notch an aluminum-framing member such as a channel, etc. so that another member may be fitted against it.

Coped Joint - A joint between two aluminum-framing members where one extrusion is cut to the profile of the second.

Cottage Double-Hung - A double-hung window in which the upper sash is shorter than the lower sash.

Counter bore - To enlarge a hole to a given depth.

Countersink - To form a depression to fit the conic head of a screw or the thickness of a plate so that the face will be level with the surface.

CR - Condensation factor determined using NFRC 500-2004. A relative indicator of a fenestration product's ability to resist the formation of condensation at a specific set of environmental conditions.

Crack Length - Total outside perimeter of a window sash/vent; no longer used to define the AAMA air-infiltration rate.

Crazing - Minute cracks in a surface or coating caused by force bending a material, such as aluminum, beyond the recommended minimum radius.

CRF - Condensation Resistance Factor is a rating number obtained under standard-test conditions which allows a prediction, within reasonable accuracy, of the ability of a window, door or glazed wall to resist the formation of condensation on interior surfaces (Higher CRF value indicates better performance).

Cripple - A short stud located under the rough sill or above the header.

CSI - Construction Specifications Institute.

Curing - The process of allowing sealants to dry and harden over a given period of time.

Curtain Wall (Aluminum) - An exterior building wall which carries no roof or floor loads and consists of a combination of aluminum, glass and other surfacing materials supported by the aluminum framework.

Custodial Lock - Window hardware only operable with a tool or key.

Cylinder - The cylindrical mechanism has a keyhole which receives the key used to operate a locking mechanism.

Cylinder Cam - Usually refers to the flat metal plate on the end of a mortise type cylinder which actuates the lock mechanism when rotated by the key.

Cylinder Guard - Hardened protective shield designed to prevent unlawful entry by forcefully twisting and removing the cylinder.

Cylinder Ring - Spacing collar to accommodate longer cylinders.

Daylight Transmittance - The percentage of visible light that glazing transmits through a window – a standard clear dual pane without considering whether a window frame has a daylight transmittance of 82%.

De-bridging - The process whereby the aluminum-bridge web connecting the exterior and interior portions of the extruded thermal-break cavity is removed either by milling or sawing after the polyurethane has cured.

Dead Latch - A latch bolt having an auxiliary feature which prevents its retraction by end pressure when in a projected position.

Dead Lock and Latch - A hardware item containing both a deadbolt and latch bolt.

Deadload - A static applied load. A load without movement.

Decibel - Unit used to measure sound. The human ear can normally detect a decibel change of 1 to 3. Normal conversation is around 60 dB while a 747 jet at takeoff is around 125 dB.

Decibel Loss - A measure of reduction of sound.

Deflection - The measure of movement of a member from its static position when subjected to loads.

Degree Day - A unit that represents a one-degree Fahrenheit deviation from some fixed reference point (usually 65° F) in the mean, daily outdoor temperature. See also heating degree day.

Desiccant - An extremely porous crystalline substance used to absorb moisture from within the sealed air space of an insulating glass unit.

Design Load - The project wind load to be determined by the architect and expressed in psf. Windows ratings are determined using AAMA 101/I.S.2/A440-05.

Designation Number - Prescribed by AAMA. One for each window style. It provides a code for architectural selection, e.g., a single hung 6220 = H-R20 = Single Hung - Residential Grade - 20 psf Design Pressure.

Dewpoint - The temperature at which water vapor in air will condense at a given state of humidity and pressure.

Divided Light - A window whose glass is separated by true divided lite (see TDL), simulated divided lite (see SDL) or by muntins.

Door Backset - Dimension from the face plane of door to the face plane of frame.

Door Clearance - The margin of clearance around the edge of a door, between door and frame.

Door Closer - A device or mechanism to control a door during its opening and closing cycle; may be overhead or floor mounted and either exposed or concealed.

Door Frame - An assembly of members, consisting of jambs and a header, into which a door or doors fit when closed. The door frame may also include transom lights and adjacent sidelights. Also see Threshold.

Door Handing - Determined by placing your back to the hinge jamb. If the door swings to your left it is a left-handed door.

Door Holder - A hardware device designed to limit the swing of a door and hold it in an open position.

Door Jamb - One of two vertical members of a door frame. The hinge jamb is the jamb to which the hinges or pivots are mounted; the lock jamb is the jamb at the leading edge of the door where a lock bolt may be engaged.

Door Light - The glass area in a door.

Door Opening - The opening dimension of a doorway is measured from inside of jambs and from floor line to underside of frame header. The opening size is usually the nominal door size and is equal to the actual door size plus clearances and threshold height.

Door Size (Actual) - The actual width and height of the swing door leaf.

Door Size (Nominal) - See Door Opening.

Door Stop - a) A molding or projecting element on a door frame which overlaps the edge of a door, causing it to stop in its closed position. b) A bumper mounted on the floor or wall to limit the extent of the door opening. c) An accessory feature of a door holder.

Dormer - A space which protrudes from the roof of a house, usually including one or more windows.

Double Glazing - In general, two thicknesses of glass separated by an air space within an opening to improve insulation against heat transfer and/or sound transmission. In factory-made double-glazing units, the air between the glass sheets is thoroughly dried and the space is sealed airtight, eliminating possible condensation and providing superior insulating properties.

Double-Acting Door - A door equipped with hardware that permits it to swing in both directions from the plane of its frame.

Double-Hung Window - A window consisting of two sashes operating in a rectangular frame, in which both the upper and lower halves can be slid up and down. A counterbalance mechanism usually holds the sash in place.

Double-Strength Glass - Sheet glass between 0.115" and 0.133" (3­3.38 mm) thick.

Drip Mold - An exterior molding (extrusion or brake shape) contoured for controlling or deflecting dripping water.

Dry Glazing - A method of securing glass in a frame that uses pre-formed resilient gaskets instead of a wet sealant or glazing compound.

Dual Durometer - A material that has two or more levels of flexibility.

Dual Window - Two windows joined together, one in front of the other, to provide superior sound control.

Durometer - An instrument with a blunt probe used to measure the hardness of elastomeric glazing gaskets and setting blocks on a scale of 0 to 100. Also see Shore A.

E E.P.D.M - (Ethylene Propylene Diene Monomer) is a type of elastomeric material which has excellent resistance to ozone, sunlight, and severe weather conditions and is ideal for outdoor service.

Edge Blocks - Short lengths of elastomeric materials located at one or both sides of a glass light to limit lateral movement ("walking") caused by horizontal expansion/contraction, minimal building sway or other factors.

Edge Clearance - The dimension between the edge of the glass or panel and its surrounding frame which is measured in the plane of the glass or panel.

Edge Cover - The dimension by which the inner edge of the frame or stop overlaps the edge of the glass or panel.

Edge Effects - Two-dimensional heat transfer at the edge of a glazing unit due to the thermal properties of spacers and sealants.

Edge of Glass - The glass area within 2 1/2" (10cm) of the edge of a window.

Egress - Exit or way out.

Egress Window - A window meeting certain size requirements for egress. The size is determined by national or local building codes. Typically, the rule is 5.7 sq. ft. of clear opening, 20" minimum clear width and 24" minimum clear height.

Elasticity - The condition or property of being elastic; flexibility.

Elastomeric Material - A term often used for rubber and polymers that have properties similar to those of rubber. Thermal break polymers having the elastic properties of natural rubber.

Electrochromics - Glazing with optical properties can vary continuously from clear to dark with a low-voltage signal. Ions are reversibly injected or removed from an electrochromic material, causing the optical density to change.

Electrolysis - Chemical decomposition of a metal surface by the action of dissimilar metals and moisture.

Electromagnetic Spectrum - Radiant energy over a broad range of wavelengths.

Electrostatic Painting - A painting process by which the aluminum is grounded and the paint carries a positive electric current. This creates a magnetic attraction between the paint and the aluminum, allowing for uniform paint coverage on all exposed extrusion surfaces.

Emergency Exit Window - Fire escape window (egress window) large enough for a person to climb out. In U.S. building codes, each bedroom must be provided with an exit window. The exact width, area, and height from the floor are specified in the building codes.

Emergency Release - A safety device other than panic hardware which permits egress through an entrance door under emergency conditions.

Emissivity - Emission, or the ability to radiate heat in the form of long-wave radiation.

Emittance - The ratio of the radiant flux emitted by a specimen to that emitted by a black body at the same temperature and under the same conditions.

End Dam - Used to close the ends of a subsill, so water will not leak out of the ends. It makes the subsill a complete water trough allowing it to collect excess water and drain it to the exterior.

Entrance - The doorway, vestibule or lobby through which one enters a building.

ER Rating - Energy rating number developed by the CSA (Canadian Standards Association) to compare the thermal performance of windows. Measured in watts per square meter (W/m2).

Escutcheon Plate - Back plate for handles and deadbolts.

Exterior Glazing - A method in which glass is secured in an opening from the exterior of the building.

Extrudability - This term is used to compare the relative resistance of different alloys and/or shapes to deformation in the extrusion process and is usually based on pressure required and attainable extrusion speed.

Extrudability Limits - A set of guidelines established by the Aluminum Association which provides limits on the production of extrusions. Dimensional tolerances, gap-width ratios, extrusion factor and circumscribing circle are examples of these limits.

Extruded Aluminum Shapes - There are two basic types of extruded shapes: Solid Extrusion - Any extruded shape other than a hollow or semi-hollow shape. Semi-Hollow Extrusion - An extruded shape where any part of the cross section partially encloses a void. The area of the void bears a fixed ratio to the square of the gap as shown in published tables developed by the Aluminum Association.

Extrusion - The metal-fabricating process by which a heated aluminum billet is forced to flow through a hole in a steel die of the desired shape. Also see Extrusion Press.

Extrusion Circle Size - This is represented by the diameter of the smallest circle that will completely enclose the aluminum extrusion. For a die with two or more holes, the diameter of the smallest circle that will enclose all the holes in the die is designated as the layout circle. Also see Extrusion Side Wall Clearance.

Extrusion Die - A steel plate or forging having a hole of the desired extrusion shape through which the aluminum is forced to flow. The die is specially machined to control the flow of metal.

Extrusion Die Support Too - These include the steel die ring, die backer, bolster and sub-bolster and have the purpose of supporting the die against the very high pressures of extrusion and transferring these forces to the head of the press.

Extrusion Factor - The numeral representing this term is the ratio of the perimeter of an aluminum extrusion to its weight per foot. It is a measure of the complexity of an extruded shape represented on the die drawing. Thin wall sections have high factor numbers and are more difficult to extrude. A solid round section has the lowest factor and would require less extrusion pressure than a more complicated shape with a high factor but an equivalent weight per foot.

Extrusion Press - A hydraulic press used for forcing heated aluminum ingots (billets) through a hole in a steel die of the desired shape.

Extrusion Pressure - The pressure available for aluminum extrusion is determined by dividing the press capacity in pounds by the cross-sectional area of the bore of the container in square inches.

Extrusion Ratio - This is determined by dividing the cross-sectional area of the bore of the container by the sum of the cross-sectional areas of the holes in the die. It is the measure of the deformation required to reduce the aluminum billet size to the extrusion size.

Extrusion Side Wall Clear - One-half the difference between the container diameter and the layout circle. This clearance is necessary to avoid feed-in of the liquated outer surface of the extrusion billet or of the skull that may adhere to the wall of the container. Greater side wall clearances are specified for extrusions with very critical surface requirements. Also see Extrusion Circle Size.

Eyebrow Windows - Picture windows that are segments of circles rather than arch windows which are half circles.

Fabricate - To cut, punch and subassemble members.

Facade - The exterior face of a building, especially the principal face.

Face Clearance - The dimension measured between the face plane of a light of glass or panel and the nearest face of its retaining frame or stop.

Fasten - To mechanically attach components together with fasteners such as screws, bolts, pins, nails, hooks, etc.

Fenestration - The arrangement and proportion of window and door openings in a building.

Fiberglass - A composite material made by embedding glass fibers in a polymer matrix. May be used as a diffusing material in sheet form, or as a standard sash and frame element.

Fin Seal - A form of pile weatherstrip that has a plastic mylar fin centered in the pile. This fin reduces air infiltration and ensures weatherstrip contact throughout the window's life.

Finger Guard - A closure strip of soft material such as rubber or plastic, which is applied at the edge of a door or to the pivot jamb adjacent to a door. It is designed to prevent damage to hands or fingers inserted between door and frame.

Finger-jointing - A means of joining individual pieces of wood together to form longer lengths. The ends of the pieces are machined to form a set of interlocking fingers, which are then coated with adhesive and meshed together under pressure.

Finish Hardware - Exposed hardware such as hinges, pivots, locks, etc. that has a finished appearance as well as a function used with doors and windows.

Fixed Light - A pane of glass installed directly into non-operating framing members; also, the opening or space for a pane of glass in a non-operating frame.

Fixed Panel - An inoperable panel of a sliding glass door or slider window.

Fixed Window - Fixed windows are not intended to open for ventilation or egress. There are no moving parts, hinges or latches. They consist of a glazed frame or a fixed sash and frame. Fixed windows are usually more air tight than windows that open. Also called Picture Window.

Flange Frame - A window frame with the head, jamb, and sill exterior perimeter leg longer than the interior perimeter leg. Also called Flush Fin.

Flashing - Sheet Material that bridges and protects the joint (gap) between the window or door frame members and the adjacent construction for the purpose of preventing water penetration by draining water away from the window or door.

Flat Filler - An extrusion which snap fits into a mating vertical or horizontal member to provide a continuous flat surface.

Float Glass - Glass formed by a process of floating the material on a bed of molten metal. It produces a high-optical-quality glass with parallel surfaces, without polishing and grinding.

Flush Bolt - A pair of rods or bolts that are mounted flush with the edge or the face of the inactive door to lock the door to the frame at head and/or sill. A flush bolt mounted in the edge is operated by means of a recessed lever.

Flush Fin - A retrofit window that has a fin pushed out to the exterior of the window or door. AKA- Z-Bar, Retrofit, stucco fin.

Flush Glazing - Glazing in which glass is set in a recess in the aluminum frame; stops are also recessed; the glazing is flush with the frame surface. These systems are also called Pocket Glazed and Center Glazed.

Foam Spacer - Foam spacer used in insulating glass windows.

Fogging - A deposit of contamination left on the inside surface of a sealed insulating glass unit due to extremes of temperatures or failed seals.

Framing - An assembly of structural aluminum extrusions consisting of a jamb, vertical mullion, intermediate horizontal, header and sill which are fitted together to form a structure into which glass or other infill material is installed.

French Hinged Door - Hinged doors that have wider panel members around the glass.

French Sliding Door - Sliding doors that have wider panel members around the glass, giving the appearance of a French-hinged door.

Fully Tempered Glass - Glass that has been heated and quenched in a controlled operation to provide a high level of surface compression. ASTM Standard C 1048-85 specifies that the surface compression be a minimum of 10000 psi. Generally considered to have four times the strength of annealed glass and two times the strength of heat-strengthened glass.

GANA - Glass Association of North America Gas Fill. A gas other than air, usually argon or krypton, placed between window or skylight glazing panes to reduce the U-factor by suppressing conduction and convection.

Gasket - A rubber or plastic pliable material used to separate glazed glass and aluminum or vinyl.

Glass - An inorganic transparent material composed of silica (sand), soda (sodium carbonate), and lime (calcium carbonate) with small quantities of alumina, boric, or magnesia oxides.

Glass Stop - A glazing bead that is either applied to or is an integral part of the framing system.

Glaze - To install glass lights or infill material.

Glazing - The act of furnishing or fitting with glass.

Glazing Bead - A light member applied to a frame or door stile or rail to hold glass or infill in a fixed position.

Glazing Gasket - A preformed elastomeric or plastic material applied between the face of the glass and the glazing pocket of the framing to seal and secure glass into frames by a dry glazing method without using compounds or tapes.

Greenhouse (Garden) Window - A three-dimensional window that projects from the exterior wall and usually has glazing on all sides except the bottom, which serves as a shelf.

Greenhouse Effect - The property of glass that permits the transmission of short-wave solar radiation, but is opaque to long-wave thermal radiation. The interior of a car heating up in direct sun illustrates the greenhouse effect.

Grids Between the Glass - Aluminum bars in varying thicknesses and profiles sealed between insulating glass panels to simulate muntin bars.

Grille - A term referring to windowpane dividers or muntins, usually a type of assembly which may be detached for cleaning.

Hairline Joint - The fine line of contact between abutting members with the maximum joint width limited to 1/64".

Hand of Door - The designation for describing the direction a door swings. Visualize your back to the hinge or pivot jamb. If the door swings right, it is a right-handed door. If the door swings left, it is a left-handed door.

Hardware for the Physically Challenged - Hardware designed specifically to accommodate the needs of the physically challenged and to provide for ease of operation and accessibility.

Haze Factor - The percentage of light through a glazing material that is not diffused. (A 100% haze factor would equate to 100% of the light being diffused.

Head or Header - The horizontal frame member which forms the top of a frame.

Heat Fusion - A welding method to join PVC frame and/or sash members by heating the cut ends, squeezing them together, and allowing the assembly to cool.

Heat Gain - The transfer of heat from outside to inside by means of conduction, convection, and radiation through all surfaces of a house.

Heat Loss - The transfer of heat from inside to outside by means of conduction, convection, and radiation through all surfaces of a house.

Heat Treating - The process where aluminum extrusions are heated and cooled to make these materials hard.

Heat-Absorbing Glass - Window glass containing chemicals (with gray, bronze, or blue-green tint) which absorb light and heat radiation, while reducing glare and brightness. Also see Tinted glass.

Heat-Strengthened Glass - Glass that has been heated and quenched in a controlled operation to provide a degree of surface compression. ASTM Standard C 1048-85 specifies that the surface compression be between 3500 and 10000 psi. Generally considered to have two times the strength of annealed glass.

Heating Degree Day - Term used by heating and cooling engineers to relate the typical climate conditions of different areas to the amount of energy needed to heat and cool a building. The base temperature is 65 degrees Fahrenheit. A heating degree day is counted for each degree below 65 degrees reached by the average daily outside temperatures in the winter. For example, if on a given winter day, the daily average temperature outdoors is 30 degrees, then there are 35 degrees below the base temperature of 65 degrees. Thus, there are 35 heating degree days for that day.

Hermetically Sealed Unit - An insulating glass unit that is sealed against moisture. The unit is made up of two lites of glass, separated by a spacer (at the full perimeter) which contains a moisture absorbing material. The unit is then completely sealed, creating a moisture-free air space.

HERS - Home Energy Rating System. A California home energy rating certification program.

High-Impact Acrylic - Glazing material which has an impact modifier blended with the acrylic resin to meet specific impact requirements.

Hinge - A hardware device that connects a sash to a frame and enabling it to swing open or closed.

Hinge Backset - Depth of the hinge leaf that is mortised into a door stile or doorjamb.

Hinge Reinforcement (Back-Up Plate) - A metal plate attached to the door and/or doorframe to receive a hinge.

Hinge Stile - The vertical structural member of a door to which the hinges are attached and about which the door pivots.

Hinged Windows - Windows (casement and awning) with an operating sash that has hinges on one side. See also Projected Window.

Hip - The intersection between two sloping surfaces forming an exterior angle.

Hollow Extrusion - An extrusion having an enclosed cavity within it.

Hopper - Window with a sash hinged at the bottom.

Horizontal Slider - HS have two or more sash (panels) within a frame. They may have one moving and one fixed sash (XO or OX), two moving sash on either side of a fixed sash (XOX), or two adjacent sash may slide by each other (XX). Most have rollers to ease operation.

IBC - International Building Code.

ICC - International Code Council. A national organization that publishes model codes for adoption by states and other agencies. Codes include the International Residential Code (IRC), International Building Code (IBC) and the International Energy Conservation Code (IECC).

IECC - International Energy Conservation Code published by the ICC. The successor to the Model Energy Code, which is cited in the 1992 U.S. Energy Policy Act (EPAct) as the baseline for residential Energy Codes in the United States.

IGCC - Insulating Glass Certification Council - directs a certification program of periodic accelerated laboratory testing and unannounced plant inspections to ensure sealed insulating glass performance is in conformance with ASTM E 774-88.

IGMA - Insulating Glass Manufacturers Alliance.

Inactive Door or Leaf - The last door of a pair of doors to be released when unlocking, usually the one not equipped with a primary lock.

Incompatibility - Adverse reaction.

Infill - Various materials glazed into a framing system.

Infiltration - See air leakage.

Infrared Radiation - Invisible, electromagnetic radiation beyond red light on the spectrum with wavelengths greater than 0.7 microns.

Inside Snap Trim - Used in retrofit work to cover the inside gap between the new window and the existing opening.

Insulated Shutters - Insulating panels that cover a window opening to reduce heat loss.

Insulating Glass Unit (IG) - An integral glass unit made up of two or three individual lights of glass separated by an air space.

Insulating Value - See U-factor.

Insulation - Material that has the ability to reduce heat or cold transmission.

Integral Mullion - A frame member trapped within the master frame to separate vents or fixed glass.

Interior Glazing - A method in which glass is secured in an opening from the interior of the building.

Interlock - An upright frame member of a panel in a sliding window or sliding glass door which engages with a corresponding member in an adjacent panel when the window or door is closed. Also called Interlocking Stile.

Intermediate Butt Hinge - A butt hinge located between the top and bottom hinges on a door.

IRC - International Residential Code.

Jack Stud - Vertical framing members, generally 2x4's, which form the inside of the window or door rough opening. They support the header and run down to the sole plate.

Jalousie - Window made up of horizontally-mounted louvered glass slats that abut each other tightly when closed and rotate outward when open.

Jamb - The end vertical member of an aluminum framing system which terminates at the intersection of a wall. It is often referred to as a wall jamb.

Jamb Anchor - A metal device inserted in the back of a metal frame to anchor the frame to the wall. A masonry anchor is used in a masonry wall and a stud anchor in a wall built with wood or metal studs.

Jamb Extension - Pieces of material used to extend the depth of the jamb to equal the depth of the rough opening.

Jamb Liner - In a double-hung window, the track installed inside the jambs on which the window sashes slide. Vinyl or metal covering applied to the side jambs of double-hung and single-hung windows. They are generally formed to include an integral balance system and stops for the exterior and interior surfaces of the sash.

Joint Design - The design of a void to be filled with sealants to prevent air or water leakage.

Keeper - Part of a door or window that the lock latches onto.

Kerf - The channel or groove cut by a saw or other tool.

Keyed-Alike Cylinders - Cylinders operated by the same key. (Not to be confused with master-keyed cylinders.)

Keyed-Different Cylinders - Cylinders requiring individual keys for their operation.

Keyway - The keyhole of a cylinder lock.

Kick Plate - A plate applied to the face on the bottom of a door or sidelight to protect against abrasion or impact loads or maintain sight lines.

King Stud - A full-length stud nailed to the end of the header.

Knob - A round handle for actuating a locking or latching device.

Knocked Down (kd) - Unassembled window or door unit. Not including glass.

Knuckle - The parts of a butt hinge which enclose the hinge pin.

Krypton - An inert, nontoxic gas used in insulating windows to reduce heat transfer.

KWH - KiloWatt Hour. A unit of energy or work that is equal to one-thousand watt-hours.

Laminated glass - Two or more sheets of glass with an inner layer of transparent plastic to which the glass adheres if broken. Used for safety glazing and sound reduction.

Latch - A mechanism having a spring-activated beveled latch bolt. Retraction of the latch bolt is by lever handle or knob.

Latch Lock - See Lock.

Leaf - An individual door used either in a single or multiples (leaves).

LEED - Leadership in Energy and Environmental Design. Rating system for the design, construction, and operation of high-performance green buildings.

Left or right sliding - Location information, always outside looking in, that is used to specify direction, e.g., "the operating sash slides to the right."

Level - The condition of perfect horizontal alignment.

Lever Handle - A bar-like grip which is rotated about an axis at one of its ends to operate a locking or latching device.

Lift - Handle for raising the lower sash in a single-hung or double-hung window. Also called Sash Lift.

Light or Lite - A separately framed piece of glass in a window or door. Sometimes spelled 'Lite." A single (monolithic) glass pane or piece.

Light-to-Solar-Gain Ratio - A measure of the ability of a glazing to provide light without excessive solar-heat gain. It is the ratio between the visible transmittance of a glazing and its solar-heat gain coefficient.

Lintel - A horizontal structural member that spans an opening at the head to carry the weight of construction above the opening.

Liquid Crystal Glazing - Glass in which the optical properties of a thin layer of liquid crystals are controlled by an electrical current, changing from a clear to a diffusing state.

Lite - Same as Light.

Liveload - Loads from non-permanent parts of the building (window washing and glazing rigs are liveloads).

Lock Backset - Distance from the edge of the locking stile to the centerline of the cylinder, measured parallel to the face of the door.

Lock Face Plate - The exposed plate set on the edge of a door to cover a locking mechanism.

Lock, Dead lock - A lock in which a bolt is moved by means of a key or thumb turn and is positively stopped in its projected position.

Long-Wave Infrared Radiation - Invisible radiation, beyond red light on the electromagnetic spectrum (above 3.5 micro meters), emitted by warm surfaces such as a body at room temperature radiating to a cold window surface.

Louvers - Glass, metal, or vinyl slats, either movable or fixed; as in a Jalousie window

Low-Conductance Spacers - An assembly of materials designed to reduce heat transfer at the edge of an insulating window. Spacers are placed between the panes of glass in a double- or triple-glazed window.

Low-E Glass - Low emissivity glass; a type of reflective glass used to reduce radiation heat transfer and improve the U-value of the glazing.

Low-Emittance (Low-E) Coating - Microscopically thin, virtually invisible, metal or metallic-oxide layers deposited on a window or skylight glazing surface primarily to reduce the U-factor by suppressing radiative heat flow. A typical type of low-E coating is transparent to the solar spectrum (visible light and short-wave infrared radiation) and reflective of long-wave infrared radiation.

Marine Glazing - A U-channel of soft PVC which is wrapped around the edge of the glass, cushioning the glass against the aluminum or vinyl. This process allows for unrestricted expansion and contraction and watertightness masonry opening. The space in a masonry wall left open for windows or door. The opening in a masonry wall to accept a window or door unit; also known as a rough opening in a frame wall. The header (or lintel) in a masonry opening is usually a steel beam.

Master Key - A key that will operate a number of different locks, each of which is different from the rest.

Master Keying - A system of keying cylinders so that one master key will operate all of them, secondary keys will operate only certain groups, and other keys will operate only certain individual cylinders.

Medium Stile - See Stile.

Meeting rail - The part of a sliding glass door, a sliding window, or a hung window where two panels meet and create a weather barrier.

Meeting Stile - The stiles of the active and inactive leaves which meet when a pair of doors is closed.

Micron - One millionth (10-6) of a metric meter.

Mil - One thousandth of an inch, or 0.0254 millimeter.

Mill Finish - The original finish of aluminum before finishing.

Miter - A joint made up of two members, each of which is cut one-half the total angle of the joint.

Model Building Code - A construction code developed from input from industry, building officials, and others for use as a guide for the development of state and local building codes. Model building codes have no legislative or jurisdictional power.

Model Energy Code (MEC) - The Model Energy Code is cited in the 1992 U.S. Energy Policy Act (EPAct) as the baseline for residential Energy Codes in the United States. It has been succeeded by the International Energy Conservation Code (IECC).

Mortise - A rectangular cutout which is fabricated in the aluminum entrance door and/or frame in preparation to receive a lock or butt hinge.

Mortise Lock - A lock designed to be installed in a mortise on the stile of the door rather than applied to the door's surface.

Mortise Type - Possesses a threaded surface for screwing it directly into a lock case and has a cam on the interior end which engages the lock mechanism.

Mortise-And-Tenon - A strong wood joint made by fitting together a mortise in one board and a matching projecting member (tenon) in the other.

MSDS - A Material Safety Data Sheet is a detailed information bulletin prepared by the manufacturer or importer of a chemical that describes the physical and chemical properties, physical and health hazards, routes of exposure, precautions for safe handling and use, emergency and first-aid procedures, and control measures. Information on an MSDS aids in the selection of safe products and helps prepare employers and employees to respond effectively to daily exposure situations as well as to emergency situations.

Mullion - A major structural vertical or horizontal member between window units or sliding glass doors.

Muntin - A secondary framing member used to hold panes within a window, window wall or glazed door.

Nail Fin - A fin on a window or door that is used to fasten the product into a rough opening. Usually not seen after installation is complete.

Narrow Stile - See Stile.

Neoprene - A synthetic rubber having physical properties closely resembling those of natural rubber but not requiring sulphur for vulcanization. Extremely good weather resistance (both heat and cold) with ultraviolet stability. Commonly used for commercial glaze.

NFRC - National Fenestration Rating Council.

Nite Latch - Hardware which, when engaged, restricts the sash opening to a predetermined dimension.

Obscure Glass - Any textured glass (frosted, etched, fluted, ground, etc.) used for privacy, light diffusion, or decorative effects.

Operable Window - Window that can be opened for ventilation.

Operator (Crank) - Operated device for opening and closing casement or jalousie windows.

Oriel Window - A window with unequal sash.

OSHA - Occupational Safety and Health Administration is a federal agency charged with making the laws and standards that are designed to make the workplace safe.

Palladian Window - A large, arch-top window flanked by smaller windows on each side.

Pane - One of the compartments of a door or window consisting of a single sheet of glass in a frame; Also, a Sheet of Glass.

Panel - A major component of a sliding glass door, consisting of a light of glass in a frame installed within the main (or outer) frame of the door. A panel may be sliding or fixed.

Panning - In replacement window work, the outside aluminum trim that can extend around the perimeter of the window opening; used to cover up the old window material. Panning can be installed in the opening before the window, or attached directly to the window before installation.

Parting Stop - A narrow strip, either integral or applied, that holds a sash or panel in position in a frame.

Passive Solar - A solar heating system that operates on natural thermal processes, and uses no external mechanical power to move the collected heat. Generally, the building's structure itself forms the solar system.

Patio Doors - Sliding glass doors, often used for access to a deck or terrace.

Peak Load - The maximum thermal load to be provided by a heating or cooling system in a house.

Photochromics - Glazing with the optical properties that change in response to the amount of incident light.

Picture Window - A large, fixed window framed so that it is usually, but not always, longer horizontally than vertically to provide a panoramic view.

Pivot Window - A window with a sash that swings open or shut by revolving on pivots at either side of the sash or at top and bottom.

Plate Glass - A rolled, ground, and polished product with true flat parallel plane surfaces, affording excellent vision. It has been replaced by Float Glass.

Plumb - The condition of exact vertical alignment.

Polyurethane - Product produced by the reaction of a polyfunctional isocyanate with a polyol or other reactant containing two or more hydroxyl groups.

Polyvinylchloride (PVC) - An extruded or molded plastic material used for window framing and as a thermal barrier for aluminum windows.

Poured and Debridged - Framing system thermal break made by flowing a catalyzed liquid material with low thermal conductivity into a one-piece channel and then removing the base of the channel or bridge after solidification to form a thermally improved extrusion. Also see Thermal Cavity.

Primer - A substance that improves the adhesion of sealant or paint.

Projected Window - A window fitted with one or more sashes opening on pivoted arms or hinges. Refers to casements, awnings, and hoppers.

PSF (Pounds Per Square Foot) - A measurement of air pressure used in window testing, e.g., 1.56 psf (25 mph) or 6.24 psf (50 mph).

Pull Hardware - A fixed handle or grip used to pull a door open.

Punch - To perforate by pressing a non-rotating tool through the work.

Purlins - Horizontal members extending between rafters for supporting the glass on slope-glazed systems.

Pyrolytic Coating - A special coating sprayed directly onto glass while it is still in a molten state, resulting in a permanently embedded surface coating. Sometimes referred to as hard-coat low-E.

R-Value - A measure of the resistance of a glazing material or fenestration assembly to heat flow. It is the inverse of the U-factor (R = 1/U) and is expressed in units of hr-sq ft-°F/Btu. A high R-value window has a greater resistance to heat flow and a higher insulating value than one with a low R-value.

Racking - The forcing out-of-plumb of structural components.

Radiation - The transfer of heat in the form of electromagnetic waves from one separate surface to another. Energy from the sun reaches the earth by radiation.

Rafter - For sloped glazing, a main nominally sloped framing member.

Rail - A horizontal member located at the top and bottom of a window or door.

Ream - To finish a drilled or punched hole very accurately with a rotating fluted tool of the required diameter.

Receptor - A channel-shaped, telescopic member which adapts the frame of a window wall or storefront system to the size of the window wall or storefront system opening; an adapter.

Reflectance - The ratio of reflected radiant energy to incident radiant energy.

Reflected Radiation - Solar radiation that strikes an exposed surface (like a window) after being reflected from the ground, trees, buildings, snow, etc. Reflected radiation can provide a significant amount of heat when vertical windows are used.

Reflective Glass - Window glass coated to reflect radiation striking the surface of the glass.

Refraction - The deflection of a light ray from a straight path passes at an oblique angle from one medium (such as air) to another (such as glass).

Relative Heat Gain - A measurement of the total heat gain through glazing for a specific set of conditions.

Relative Humidity - The percentage of moisture in the air in relationship to the amount of moisture the air could hold at that given temperature. At 100 percent relative humidity, moisture condenses and falls as rain.

Resfen - A computer program used to calculate energy use based on window selection in residential buildings.

Retrofit - To add new materials or equipment not provided at the time of original construction.

Reveal - In windows it is typically the distance from the glazing to the edge of the frame. On hinged doors it is the distance from the face of a door to the face of the frame on the pivot or hinge side.

Ridge - The horizontal member at the junction of the upper edges of two sloping glass areas.

Roof Window - A fixed or operable window similar to a skylight placed in the sloping surface of a roof.

Rough Opening - The opening in a wall into which a door or window is to be installed.

Rough Sill - The horizontal rough framing member that forms the bottom of the rough opening.

S -Value - Section Modulus of the cross section of a member about the neutral axis perpendicular to the loads. This section property is used to calculate the stress on a member under loads. It is directly proportional to the capacity of the member. (Higher S-values improve the member’s performance and reduce internal stress.)

S.T.C. - Sound Transmission Class is a single number rating that measures the sound insulation value of a partition, door, or window. It is derived from a curve of its insulation value as a function of frequency. The higher the number, the more effective the sound insulation.

S.T.L. - Sound Transmission Loss is a measure of the sound-insulation value of a partition. It is the amount, in decibels, by which the intensity of the sound is reduced in transmission through the partition.

Sash - An assembly of lightweight aluminum extrusions forming the perimeter of a fixed light of glass.

Sash Balance - A coiled spring or spiral system integrated into the jambs to ease the operation of hung sashes when opening and closing. They also allow the sashes to remain open in varied positions.

Sash Cord - In double-hung windows, the rope or chain which attaches the sash to the counter balance.

Sash Lift - A protruding handle screwed to the inside bottom rail of the lower sash on a double-hung window.

Sash Lock - Generally, a lock applied to the interlocks or stiles of a sliding or hung window to secure the moving panel in place.

Sash Stop - Cover in jamb track that reduces sash travel on hung windows.

Sash Weights - In older double-hung windows, the concealed cast-iron weights which are used to counterbalance the sash.

SBC - Standard Building Code was first enacted by the Southern Building Code Congress International on November 16, 1945. Area of influence was Southeastern portion of the United States. Replaced by the ICC codes.

Screen - Woven mesh of metal, plastic, or fiberglass stretched over a window opening to permit air to pass through, but not insects.

Screw Boss - A continuous screw track in an extrusion. The track is designed to accept a specific diameter sheet metal screw to provide a secure means of fastening extrusions without the use of reinforcement.

Sealant - An elastomeric material with adhesive qualities used to seal joints or openings against the passage of air and water.

Sealant Backing - A compressible material inserted into a joint prior to applying a sealant to limit the depth of the applied sealant. Also see Backer Rod.

Seat Board - A flat board cut to fit the contour of a bow or bay window that's installed between the sills and the flat wall surface. They provide a seat or shelf space.

Seismic Load - Building movement and forces caused by earthquake motion.

Setting Block - A small piece of elastomeric material placed under glass in a frame to distribute the weight of the glass, to center the glass vertically within the frame and to prevent glass-to-metal contact. The recommended durometer for setting block material is 85±5 Shore A scale. Also see Shore A.

Shade Screen - A specially fabricated screen of sheet material with small narrow louvers formed in place to intercept solar radiation striking a window; the louvers are so small that only extremely small insects can pass through. Also called Sun Screen.

Shading Coefficient (SC) - A measure of the ability of a window or skylight to transmit solar heat, relative to that ability for 1/8-inch clear, double-strength, single glass. It is being phased out in favor of the solar heat gain coefficient - approximately equal to the SHGC multiplied by 1.15. It is expressed as a number without units between 0 and 1. The lower a window's solar heat gain coefficient or shading coefficient, the less solar heat it transmits, and the greater is its shading ability.

Shear Block - A type of joinery that uses a clip (the shear block) attached to a vertical mullion. The horizontal member fits over the clip and is secured by screws driven into the shear block.

Sheet Glass - A transparent, flat glass found in older windows, now largely replaced by float glass.

Shim - A spacer of uniform thickness and varying sizes used to plumb and level frames.

Shore A - Test used to measure the durometer (hardness) of elastomeric glazing gaskets and usually referred to as Shore A (Shore Instrument Company - Scale A). Also see Durometer.

Short-Wave Infrared Radia - Invisible radiation, just beyond red light on the electromagnetic spectrum (between 0.7 and 2.5 microns), emitted by hot surfaces and included in solar radiation.

Sidelight - The glazed frame or frames placed on one or both sides of a door.

Silicone - A chemical used as a lubricant or as a sealant.

Sill - The bottom horizontal member of a door, window or sash frame.

Sill Pan - A rigid flashing installed under doors or windows that has a purpose of collecting and draining residual water to the exterior. It can be formed out of sheet metal or extruded in one piece. It is designed to have an upstanding leg in the interior and each end.

Sill track - The track provided at the sill of a sliding glass door or window. Also, the sill member that incorporates such a track.

Simulated Divided Lights - A window that has the appearance of a number of smaller panes of glass separated by muntins, but actually is a larger glazing unit with the muntins placed between or on the surfaces of the glass layers.

Single-Acting Door - A door mounted to swing in one direction only from the plane of its frame.

Single-Glazing - Single thickness of glass in a window or door.

Single-Hung Window - A window consisting of two sashes of glass, the top one stationary and the bottom movable.

Single-Strength Glass - Glass with thickness between 0.085" and 0.100" (2.16­2.57 mm).

Skylight (Operable or Piv - A roof window that gives light and ventilation.

Sliding Glass Door - A door fitted with one or more panels that move horizontally on a track and/or in grooves. Moving action is usually of rolling type (rather than sliding type). Also called gliding door, rolling glass door, and patio sliding door.

Sliding Window - A window fitted with one or more sashes opening by sliding horizontally or vertically in grooves provided by frame members. Vertical sliders may be single- or double-hung.

Slope Glazed - A glass and framing assembly that is sloped more than 15° from vertical.

Smart Window - Generic term for windows with switchable coatings to control solar gain.

Snowload - Loads imposed on slope glazed structures by the accumulation of snow.

Soffit - The exposed undersurface of any overhead component of a building, such as an arch, balcony, beam, cornice, lintel, or vault.

Solar Control Coatings - Thin film coatings on glass or plastic that absorb or reflect solar energy, thereby reducing solar gain.

Solar Heat Gain Coefficient (SHGC) - The fraction of solar radiation admitted through a window or skylight, both directly transmitted, and absorbed and subsequently released inward. The solar heat gain coefficient has replaced the shading coefficient as the standard indicator of a window's shading ability. It is expressed as a number between 0 and 1. The lower a window's solar heat gain coefficient, the less solar heat it transmits, and the greater its shading ability. SHGC can be expressed in terms of the glass alone or the entire window assembly.

Solar Radiation - The total radiant energy from the sun, including ultraviolet and infrared wave lengths as well as visible light.

Solar Screen - A sun shading device, such as screens, panels, louvers, or blinds, installed to intercept solar radiation.

Solar Spectrum - The intensity variation of sunlight across its spectral range.

Solar Transmittance - The percentage of total solar energy that glazing transmits through a window – a standard clear dual pane has a solar transmittance of 71%.

Solar-Tempered House - A dwelling that obtains a large part of its heat from the sun.

Sole Plate - The bottom horizontal piece in a frame wall, usually single or double 2x4's. The wall is nailed into the deck or rough floor through the sole plate.

Solid Extrusion - An extruded shape other than a hollow or a semi-hollow extruded shape. Less costly to produce compared to semi or hollow shapes.

Sound Transmission Class - The sound transmission loss rating of a material over a selected range of sound frequencies. The higher the number, the less sound transmitted.

Span - Distance between centers of supports.

Spandrel - Opaque glazing material most often used to conceal building elements between floors of a building, so they cannot be seen from the exterior.

Spectrally Selective Coat - A coated or tinted glazing with optical properties that are transparent to some wavelengths of energy and reflective to others. Typical spectrally selective coatings are transparent to visible light and reflect short-wave and long-wave infrared radiation.

Speed Control - The mechanism that controls the rate of speed at which a door will operate.

Splice - A longitudinal or latitudinal connection between the parts of a continuous member.

Sputtered Coating - A coating deposited on glass or film atom-by-atom in a precise process inside a vacuum chamber. Softcoat low-E uses sputtered coatings.

STC (Sound Transmission Class) - Describes acoustical control for interior panels, and, even though inadequate, sometimes exterior windows. The higher the number, the better the product is at resisting typical sound frequencies excluding airplane and train noises.

Steel Reinforcing - A steel component placed within a vertical mullion to add stiffness and increase the windload capability of the system. Steel reinforcing may also be used to limit deadload deflection in intermediate horizontals.

Stiffener - A reinforcing member which serves to limit the deflection of the member to which it is attached.

Stile - A vertical member of a window or door, exclusive of applied glazing beads. Stiles are usually designated by function, such as lock stile, hinge stile or meeting stile.

Stool - The narrow shelf fitted on the inside of a window which butts against the sill.

Stop - The molding on the inside of a window frame against which the window sash closes; in the case of a double-hung window, the sash slides against the stop. Also used to describe a glazing bead.

Storm Windows - A second set of windows installed on the outside or inside of the primary windows to provide additional insulation and wind protection.

Strike - Typically the portion of the lock that engages the keeper in the jamb or mullion.

Subframe - A supporting frame installed prior to installing a finished door frame.

Subsill - An aluminum extruded profile installed beneath the primary sill of a framing system specifically designed to function as a secondary defense for collecting infiltrated water which is then weeped to the exterior.

Sun Control Film - A tinted or reflective film applied to the glazing surface to reduce visible, ultra-violet, or total transmission of solar radiation. Reduces solar heat gain in summer and glare. Some can be removed and reapplied with changing seasons.

Superwindow - A window with a very low U-factor, typically less than 0.15, achieved through the use of multiple glazings, low-E coatings, and gas fills.

Sweep Strip or Door Sweep - A weatherstrip mounted at the top or bottom edge of a swing door.

Swing - The direction a swing door opens. Also see Hand of Door.

Switchable Glazings - Glazings with optical properties that can be reversibly switched from clear to dark or reflective.

Temper (Aluminum) - Process used to bring a proper degree of hardness or elasticity by heat treatment. T5 - Artificially aged to improve mechanical properties and stability. T6 - Solution treated and artificially aged to improve the allowable stresses and consequently the capacity to resist greater movements.

Tempered Glass - Strong, break-resistant glass created in a secondary process via controlled air cooling of the heated glass. Tempered glass is four times stronger than annealed glass; a form of safety glazing. When shattered, it breaks into small pieces.

Tempering - Strengthening glass with heat and controlled air cooling.

Template (For Hardware) - A master pattern or scaled drawing showing all dimensions and hole spacing for hardware application.

Template Hardware - Hardware manufactured within template tolerances.

Tenon - A rectangular projection cut out of a piece of wood for insertion into a mortise.

Thermal Break - An insulating material of low-thermal conductivity placed between materials of high conductivity within the system itself to inhibit the flow of cold or heat.

Thermal Cavity - The hollow, channel or void provided in the extruded framing member into which the liquid-thermal-break material is poured.

Thermal Expansion and Contraction - An increase in the dimensions of a material in direct proportion to the rise in its temperature and conversely a dimensional shrinking as a result of a drop in temperature.

Thermal Mass - Mass in a building (furnishings or structure) that is used to absorb solar gain during the day and release the heat as the space cools in the evening.

Thermal Resistance - The ability of a material to impede the flow of heat. See R-Value.

Thermal Stress - Strain on the edges of a glass pane caused by the faster expansion rate of the center of the light when exposed to heat.

Thermal Transmittance (U-Value) - The time rate of heat flow per unit area under steady state conditions through a body for a unit-air temperature difference on the two sides of the body.

Thermally Improved - Framing systems which for the most part have a continuous thermal isolator between the exterior and interior aluminum framing members, but which have intermittent contact between the exterior and interior by a highly conductive material such as aluminum or a steel fastener.

Thermochromics - Glazing with optical properties that can change in response to temperature changes.

Threshold - The member that lies at the bottom of a sliding glass door or swinging door; the sill of a doorway.

Throw - The distance which a lock bolt or latch bolt projects when in the locked position.

Thumbturn - A permanently attached small lever which, when turned, operates the bolt on a dead lock in the same manner as a key.

Tilt window - A single- or double-hung window whose operable sash can be tilted into the room for interior washability.

Tinted glass - Glass colored by incorporation of a mineral admixture. Any tinting reduces both visual and radiant transmittance.

Translucent - A glazing such as frosted glass, which transmits electromagnetic radiation (light) but causes scattering so that a clear image cannot be seen.

Transmittance - The percentage of radiation that can pass through glazing. Transmittance can be defined for different types of light or energy, e.g., visible light transmittance, UV transmittance, or total solar energy transmittance.

Transom Bar - The horizontal frame member (header) which separates the door opening from the transom.

Transom Window - The window sash located above a door. Also called transom light.

Transparent - Clear glazing that transmits light without diffusion for a clear view.

Trim Hardware - Decorative finish hardware used to operate functional hardware or the door itself.

Triple Glazing - Three panes of glass or plastic with two air spaces between.

True Divided Light (TDL) - A term which refers to windows in which multiple individual panes of glass or lights are assembled in the sash using muntins.

U-Factor - NFRC simulated overall coefficient of heat, transmittance of heat flow measured in BTU/hr-ft2-F. Lower U-factors indicate better performance.

U-Value - Measures the heat transfer through a material due to the difference in air temperatures on the two sides. (Lower U-values indicate better performance.) Also see Thermal Transmittance.

U.L. - Underwriters' Laboratories, Inc.

Ultraviolet Light (UV) - The invisible rays of the spectrum that are outside of the visible spectrum at its short-wavelength violet end. Ultraviolet rays are found in everyday sunlight and cause paint finishes, carpets, and fabrics to fade.

Uniform Building Code (UBC) - The building code generally used in the western United States, developed by the International Conference of Building Officials (ICBO) in Whittier, CA. Area of influence: Regions in the United States west of the Mississippi River. Replaced by ICC.

Uniform Construction Index - CSI format system to standardize classification of construction-related products; united inches the sum total of one window width and one window height expressed in inches.

Valley - The trough or gutter formed by the intersection of two inclined planes on a roof. The inclined planes are perpendicular to each other.

Vapor Retarder - A material that reduces the diffusion of water vapor across a building assembly.

Vault - An arched structure forming the supporting structure of a ceiling or roof.

Veneer - A thin surface layer glued to a base of inferior material. To overlay (a surface) with a thin layer of a fine or decorative material.

Vent - The operating portion of a window that slides, swings or projects in or out.

Vent Unit - A window or door that opens to provide ventilation.

Vestibule - A small entrance hall or passage between the outer door and the interior of a building.

Vinyl - Polyvinyl chloride material, which can be both rigid or flexible, used for window frames.

Visible Light - The portion of the electromagnetic spectrum that produces light that can be seen. Wavelengths range from 380 to 720 nanometers.

Visible Light Transmittance - Visible Light Transmittance (VT) measures how much light comes through a product. The visible transmittance is an optical property that indicates the amount of visible light transmitted.

Warm-Edge Technology - The use of low-conductance spacers to reduce heat transfer near the edge of insulated glazing.

Wave-Length Selective - "Intelligent" coatings such as Low-E allow for glazing combinations to permit selective gain or shielding of the sun's heat, while letting in visible light.

Weatherstripping - A strip of resilient material for covering the joint between the window sash and frame in order to reduce air leaks and prevent water from entering the structure.

Wedge Glazing - A flexible, continuous gasket that ensures a high-compression seal between the glass and glazing bead by applying pressure.

Weep Hole - A small opening in a wall or window sill member through which water may drain to the building exterior.

Windload - Force exerted on a surface by moving air.

Windload Formula - Formula used to relate wind speed to wind loads. MPH = Sqrt (PSF/.00256).

Window - A glazed opening in an external wall of a building; an entire unit consisting of a frame sash and glazing, and any operable elements.

Window Hardware - Various devices and mechanisms for the window including catches, fasteners and locks, hinges, pivots, lifts and pulls, pulleys and sash weights, sash balances, and stays. Always expressed as width first, then height.

Windowpane Divider - See Muntin.

Wire Glass - 1/4" clear or obscure glass having a layer of diamond or square pattern wire mesh embedded in the glass lite.



Orange County is a county in Southern California, United States. Its county seat is Santa Ana. According to the 2000 Census, its population was 2,846,289, making it the second most populous county in the state of California, and the fifth most populous in the United States. The state of California estimates its population as of 2007 to be 3,098,121 people, dropping its rank to third, behind San Diego County. Thirty-four incorporated cities are located in Orange County; the newest is Aliso Viejo.

Unlike many other large centers of population in the United States, Orange County uses its county name as its source of identification whereas other places in the country are identified by the large city that is closest to them. This is because there is no defined center to Orange County like there is in other areas which have one distinct large city. Five Orange County cities have populations exceeding 170,000 while no cities in the county have populations surpassing 360,000. Seven of these cities are among the 200 largest cities in the United States.

Orange County is also famous as a tourist destination, as the county is home to such attractions as Disneyland and Knott's Berry Farm, as well as sandy beaches for swimming and surfing, yacht harbors for sailing and pleasure boating, and extensive area devoted to parks and open space for golf, tennis, hiking, kayaking, cycling, skateboarding, and other outdoor recreation. It is at the center of Southern California's Tech Coast, with Irvine being the primary business hub.

The average price of a home in Orange County is $541,000. Orange County is the home of a vast number of major industries and service organizations. As an integral part of the second largest market in America, this highly diversified region has become a Mecca for talented individuals in virtually every field imaginable. Indeed the colorful pageant of human history continues to unfold here; for perhaps in no other place on earth is there an environment more conducive to innovative thinking, creativity and growth than this exciting, sun bathed valley stretching between the mountains and the sea in Orange County.

Orange County was Created March 11 1889, from part of Los Angeles County, and, according to tradition, so named because of the flourishing orange culture. Orange, however, was and is a commonplace name in the United States, used originally in honor of the Prince of Orange, son-in-law of King George II of England.

Incorporated: March 11, 1889
Legislative Districts:
* Congressional: 38th-40th, 42nd & 43
* California Senate: 31st-33rd, 35th & 37
* California Assembly: 58th, 64th, 67th, 69th, 72nd & 74

County Seat: Santa Ana
County Information:
Robert E. Thomas Hall of Administration
10 Civic Center Plaza, 3rd Floor, Santa Ana 92701
Telephone: (714)834-2345 Fax: (714)834-3098
County Government Website:


Noteworthy communities Some of the communities that exist within city limits are listed below: * Anaheim Hills, Anaheim * Balboa Island, Newport Beach * Corona del Mar, Newport Beach * Crystal Cove/Pelican Hill, Newport Beach * Capistrano Beach, Dana Point * El Modena, Orange * French Park, Santa Ana * Floral Park, Santa Ana * Foothill Ranch, Lake Forest * Monarch Beach, Dana Point * Nellie Gail, Laguna Hills * Northwood, Irvine * Woodbridge, Irvine * Newport Coast, Newport Beach * Olive, Orange * Portola Hills, Lake Forest * San Joaquin Hills, Laguna Niguel * San Joaquin Hills, Newport Beach * Santa Ana Heights, Newport Beach * Tustin Ranch, Tustin * Talega, San Clemente * West Garden Grove, Garden Grove * Yorba Hills, Yorba Linda * Mesa Verde, Costa Mesa

Unincorporated communities These communities are outside of the city limits in unincorporated county territory: * Coto de Caza * El Modena * Ladera Ranch * Las Flores * Midway City * Orange Park Acres * Rossmoor * Silverado Canyon * Sunset Beach * Surfside * Trabuco Canyon * Tustin Foothills

Adjacent counties to Orange County Are: * Los Angeles County, California - north, west * San Bernardino County, California - northeast * Riverside County, California - east * San Diego County, California - southeast

Orange County is home to many colleges and universities, including:


San Diego is a coastal Southern California city located in the southwestern corner of the continental United States. As of 2006, the city has an estimated population of 1,256,951. It is the second largest city in California and the eighth largest city in the United States. It is the county seat of San Diego County.GR6 and is the economic center of the San Diego–Carlsbad–San Marcos metropolitan area, the 17th-largest metro area in the U.S. with a population of 2.9 million as of 2006, and the 21st largest Metropolitan area in the Americas when including Tijuana.

San Diego County lies just north of the Mexican border—sharing a border with Tijuana—and lies south of Orange County. It is home to miles of beaches, a mild Mediterranean climate and 16 military facilities hosting the United States Navy, the United States Coast Guard and the United States Marine Corps.

The University of California, San Diego (UCSD) and the affiliated UCSD Medical Center combined with nearby research institutes in the Torrey Pines area of La Jolla make the area influential in biotechnology research. San Diego's economy is largely composed of agriculture, biotechnology/biosciences, computer sciences, electronics manufacturing, defense-related manufacturing, financial and business services, ship-repair and construction, software development, telecommunications, and tourism.

The city of San Diego it self has deep canyons separating its mesas, creating small pockets of natural parkland scattered throughout the city. The same canyons give parts of the city a highly segmented feel, creating literal gaps between otherwise proximal neighborhoods and contributing to a low-density, car-centered built environment. Downtown San Diego is located on San Diego Bay. Balboa Park lies on a mesa to the northeast. It is surrounded by several dense urban communities and abruptly ends in Hillcrest to the north. The Coronado and Point Loma peninsulas separate San Diego Bay from the ocean. Ocean Beach is on the west side of Point Loma. Mission Beach and Pacific Beach lie between the ocean and Mission Bay, a man-made aquatic park. La Jolla, an affluent community, lies north of Pacific Beach. Mount Soledad in La Jolla offers views from northern San Diego County to Mexico. Mountains rise to the east of the city, and beyond the mountains are desert areas. Cleveland National Forest is a half-hour drive from downtown San Diego. Numerous farms are found in the valleys northeast and southeast of the city. San Diego County has one of the highest count of animal and plant species that are on the endangered species list than other counties in the United States.

Communities and neighborhoods of San Diego: Old Town, San Diego. Old Town, San Diego. Northern: Bay Ho, Bay Park, Carmel Valley, Clairemont Mesa East, Clairemont Mesa West, Del Mar Mesa, La Jolla, La Jolla Village, Mission Beach, Mission Bay Park, North City, North Clairemont, Pacific Beach, Pacific Highlands Ranch, Torrey Hills, Torrey Pines, University City Northeastern: Black Mountain Ranch, Carmel Mountain Ranch, Miramar, Miramar Ranch North, Mira Mesa, Rancho Bernardo, Rancho Encantada, Rancho Peñasquitos, Sabre Springs, San Pasqual Valley, Scripps Ranch, Sorrento Valley, Torrey Highlands Eastern: Allied Gardens, Birdland, Del Cerro, Grantville, Kearny Mesa, Lake Murray, Mission Valley East, San Carlos, Serra Mesa, Tierrasanta Western: Burlingame, Hillcrest, La Playa, Linda Vista, Loma Portal, Midtown, Midway District, Mission Hills, Mission Valley West, Morena, North Park, Ocean Beach, Old Town, Point Loma Heights, Roseville-Fleetridge, Sunset Cliffs, University Heights, Wooded Area Central: Balboa Park, Bankers Hill, Barrio Logan, City Heights, Downtown (Columbia, Core, Cortez Hill, East Village, Gaslamp Quarter, Horton, Little Italy, Marina), Golden Hill, Grant Hill, Logan Heights, Memorial, Middletown, Sherman Heights, South Park, Stockton Mid-City: City Heights (comprising Azalea Park, Bayridge, Hollywood Park, Castle, Cherokee Point, Chollas Creek, Colina Del Sol, Corridor, Fairmount, Fox Canyon, Islenair, Ridgeview/Webster Rolando, Swan Canyon, Teralta East, Teralta West), College East, College West, Darnall, El Cerrito, Gateway, Kensington, Normal Heights, Oak Park, Talmadge Southeastern: Alta Vista, Bay Terrace, Broadway Heights, Chollas View, Emerald Hills, Encanto, Jamacha-Lomita, Lincoln Park, Mountain View, Mt. Hope, Paradise Hills, Shelltown, Skyline, Southcrest, Valencia Park Southern: Egger Highlands, Nestor, Ocean Crest, Otay Mesa, Otay Mesa West, Palm City, San Ysidro, Tijuana River Valley

The three largest sectors of San Diego's economy are defense, manufacturing, and tourism respectively. Several areas of San Diego (in particular La Jolla and surrounding Sorrento Valley areas) are home to offices and research facilities for numerous biotechnology companies. Major biotechnology companies like Neurocrine Biosciences and Nventa Biopharmaceuticals are headquartered in San Diego, while many biotech and pharmaceutical companies, such as BD Biosciences, Biogen Idec, Integrated DNA Technologies, Merck, Pfizer, Élan, Genzyme, Cytovance, Celgene and Vertex, have offices or research facilities in San Diego. There are also several non-profit biotech institutes, such as the Salk Institute for Biological Studies, the Scripps Research Institute and the Burnham Institute. The presence of University of California, San Diego and other research institutions helped fuel biotechnology growth. In June 2004, San Diego was ranked the top biotech cluster in the U.S. by the Milken Institute.

San Diego is home to companies that develop wireless cellular technology. Qualcomm Incorporated was founded and is headquartered in San Diego; Qualcomm is the largest private-sector technology employer (excluding hospitals) in San Diego County.[14] The largest software company in San Diego (acccording to the San Diego Business Journal) is security software company Websense Inc. Websense was founded and is headquartered in San Diego.

The economy of San Diego is influenced by its port, which includes the only major submarine and shipbuilding yards on the West Coast, as well as the largest naval fleet in the world. The cruise ship industry, which is the second largest in California, generates an estimated $2 million annually from the purchase of food, fuel, supplies, and maintenance services.[15] Due to San Diego's military influence, major national defense contractors, such as General Atomics and Science Applications International Corporation are headquartered in San Diego. Tourism is also a major industry owing to the city's climate. Major tourist destinations include Balboa Park, the San Diego Zoo, Seaworld, nearby Wild Animal Park and Legoland, the city's beaches and golf tournaments like the Buick Invitational.

San Diego has several sports venues: Qualcomm Stadium is the home of the NFL San Diego Chargers, NCAA Division I San Diego State Aztecs, as well as local high school football championships. Qualcomm Stadium also hosts international soccer games, Supercross events and formerly hosted Major League Baseball. Three NFL Super Bowl championships and many college football bowl games have been held there. Balboa Stadium is the city's first stadium, constructed in 1914, and former home of the San Diego Chargers. Currently Balboa Stadium hosts soccer, American football and track and field.

PETCO Park in downtown San Diego is the home of Major League Baseball's San Diego Padres. The ballpark is also the current home of the semi-final and final games of the World Baseball Classic series, having hosted the inaugural series championship games in 2006. PETCO Park will be the home to the 2009 World Baseball Classic semi-finals and final as well. Other than baseball, PETCO Park hosts other occasional soccer and rugby events. The San Diego Sports Arena hosts basketball, and has also hosted ice hockey, indoor soccer and boxing. Cox Arena at Aztec Bowl on the campus of San Diego State University hosts the NCAA Division I San Diego State Aztecs men's and women's basketball games. Torero Stadium at the University of San Diego hosts college football and soccer, and the Jenny Craig Pavilion at USD hosts basketball and volleyball.

The San Diego State Aztecs (MWC) and the San Diego Toreros (WCC) are NCAA Division I teams. The UCSD Tritons (CCAA) are members of NCAA Division II while the Point Loma Nazarene Sea Lions (GSAC) are members of the NAIA. San Diego has been the home of two NBA franchises, the first of which was called the San Diego Rockets. The Rockets represented the city of San Diego from 1967 until 1971. After the conclusion of the 1970-1971 season, they moved to Texas where they became the Houston Rockets. Seven years later, San Diego received a relocated NBA franchise (the Buffalo Braves), which was renamed the San Diego Clippers. The Clippers played in the San Diego Sports Arena from 1978 until 1984. Prior to the start of the 1984-1985 season, the team was moved to Los Angeles, and is now called the Los Angeles Clippers. Other sports franchises that represented San Diego include the San Diego Conquistadors of the American Basketball Association, the San Diego Sockers (which played in various indoor and outdoor soccer leagues during their existence), the San Diego Flash and the San Diego Gauchos, both playing in different divisions of the United Soccer League, the San Diego Spirit of the Women's United Soccer Association, the San Diego Mariners of the World Hockey Association, and the San Diego Gulls who were in different hockey leagues during each of their three incarnations. The San Diego Riptide and the San Diego Shockwave were indoor football teams that played at the Sports Arena and Cox Arena, respectively. San Diego has long been a candidate for a Major League Soccer franchise, especially due to the city recording FIFA World Cup television audiences which are double the national average. Curiously, despite positive language being expressed by the league, the city, the media and the public, a franchise continues to elude San Diego. That looks likely to be finally rectified with San Diego considered among the favourites to land one of three franchises to be offered before 2010. The city does currently have an active mens team playing in the fourth level of American soccer, the San Diego Pumitas but no approaches have been made to turn them into an MLS team as yet.

According to education rankings released by the U.S. Census Bureau, 40.4 percent of San Diegans ages 25 and older hold bachelor's degrees. The census ranks the city as the ninth most educated city in the United States based on these figures. Public colleges and universities in the city include University of California, San Diego (UCSD), San Diego State University (SDSU), and the San Diego Community College District, which includes San Diego City College, San Diego Mesa College, and San Diego Miramar College. Private colleges and universities in the city include Alliant International University (AIU), Design Institute of San Diego (DISD), John Paul the Great Catholic University, National University, NewSchool of Architecture and Design, Pacific Oaks College, The Art Institute of California, San Diego, Point Loma Nazarene University (PLNU),Woodbury University School of Architecture's satellite campus, and University of San Diego (USD) . There is one medical school in the city, the UCSD School of Medicine. There are three ABA accredited law schools in the city, which include California Western School of Law, Thomas Jefferson School of Law, and University of San Diego School of Law. There is also one unaccredited law school, Western Sierra Law School. The Joint Mathematics Meeting of the MAA, that is, Mathematical Association of America and AMS, which denotes American Mathematical Society, took place in San Diego, January, 2008.

The San Diego Unified School District, also known as San Diego City Schools, is the school district that serves the majority of the city, it includes 113 elementary schools, 23 middle schools, 4 atypical schools, 10 alternative schools, 27 high schools and 25 charter schools. In the northern part of the county, Poway Unified School District and San Dieguito Union High School District are districts outside city limits, but serve several schools within city limits. In the southern part of the county, Sweetwater Union High School District serves multiple schools within city limits, although it is headquartered outside city limits. San Ysidro School District (K-8) serves areas of San Diego also served by Sweet Water Union High School District. Del Mar Union Elementary School District and Solana Beach Elementary School District serve areas of San Diego also within San Dieguito.

Riverside County is a county located in the southeastern part of the U.S. state of California, stretching from Orange County to the Colorado River, which is the border with Arizona. This county is part of the Riverside-San Bernardino Area, in a region of Southern California known as the Inland Empire. Such famous golf resorts as Indian Wells, La Quinta, Rancho Mirage, Palm Springs and Palm Desert are located in Riverside County. Indio is the center of an important date growing region.

Incorporated Cities in Riverside County * Banning * Beaumont * Blythe * Calimesa * Canyon Lake * Cathedral City * Coachella * Corona * Desert Hot Springs * Hemet * Indian Wells * Indio * La Quinta * Lake Elsinore * Moreno Valley * Murrieta * Norco * Palm Desert * Palm Springs * Perris * Rancho Mirage * Riverside * San Jacinto * Temecula

Unincorporated communities and neighborhoods in Riverside County * Aguanga * Anza * Bermuda Dunes * Cabazon * Cherry Valley * Chiriaco Summit * De Luz * Desert Beach * Desert Center * East Blythe * Eagle Mountain * Eastvale * East Hemet * El Cerrito * Glen Avon * Highgrove * Home Gardens * Homeland * Idyllwild * Lake Tamarisk * Lakeland Village * Lakeview * Lost Lake * Mead Valley * Mecca * Menifee * Midland * Mira Loma * Murrieta Hot Springs * North Shore * Nuevo * Pedley * Pine Cove * Quail Valley * Ripley * Romoland * Rubidoux * Sedco Hills * Sky Valley * Sun City * Sunnyslope * Thermal * Thousand Palms * Valle Vista * Wildomar * Winchester * Woodcrest

Indian Reservations * Agua Caliente Tribal Council * Cabazon Band of Mission Indians * Cahuilla Band of Mission Indians * Morongo Indian Reservation * Pechanga Band of Mission Indians * Ramona Band of Cahuilla Indians * Santa Rosa Indian Reservation * Soboba Band of Mission Indians * Torres-Martinez

Adjacent Counties * San Bernardino County, California- north * La Paz County, Arizona- east * Imperial County, California- south * San Diego County, California- south * Orange County, California- west


Los Angeles County is a county in California and is by far the most populous county in the United States. The county is home to 88 incorporated cities and many unincorporated areas. The coastal portion of the county is heavily urbanized, though there is a large expanse of lesser populated desert inland in the Santa Clarita Valley, and especially in the Antelope Valley which encompasses the northeastern parts of the county and adjacent eastern Kern County, lying just north of Los Angeles County. In between the large desert portions of the county -- which make up around 40 percent of its land area -- and the heavily urbanized central and southern portions sits the San Gabriel Mountains containing Angeles National Forest. All of southern Los Angeles County, north to about the center of the county, is heavily urbanized.

Most of the population of Los Angeles County is located in the southern and southwestern portion of the county. The major population centers are the Los Angeles Basin and the San Fernando and San Gabriel Valleys. Moderate population are in the Santa Clarita, Crescenta and Antelope Valleys. The area north of the Santa Clarita Valley (Northwest Los Angeles County, adjacent to Ventura and Kern counties) is mostly mountainous, rugged, well-timbered and filled with coniferous forests and receives plentiful snow in the winter, right to the point of blizzard conditions. This area is less populated. Mountains in this area include San Emigdio Mountains, the southernmost part of Tehachapi Mountains, and the Sierra Pelona Mountains.

Major divisions of the county * Greater Los Angeles Area * East: East Los Angeles, San Gabriel Valley, Pomona Valley * West: West Los Angeles, Beach Cities * South: South Bay, Palos Verdes Peninsula, South Los Angeles, Gateway Cities * North: San Fernando Valley, portions of the Antelope Valley and Santa Clarita Valley * Central: Downtown Los Angeles, Mid-Wilshire

Largest cities * 1. Los Angeles 3,849,378 * 2. Long Beach 463,956 * 3. Glendale 207,157 * 4. Santa Clarita 177,158 * 5. Pomona 162,140 * 6. Torrance 148,558 * 7. Pasadena 147,262 * 8. Palmdale 145,468 * 9. Lancaster 143,818 * 10. El Monte 126,282 * 11. Inglewood 119,212 * 12. Downey 113,587 * 13. West Covina 112,953 * 14. Norwalk 110,040 * 15. Burbank 107,921

The other cities are: * Agoura Hills * Alhambra * Arcadia * Artesia * Avalon * Azusa * Baldwin Park * Bell * Bell Gardens * Bellflower * Beverly Hills * Bradbury * Burbank * Calabasas * Carson * Cerritos * Claremont * Commerce * Compton * Covina * Cudahy * Culver City * Diamond Bar * Downey * Duarte * El Segundo * Gardena * Glendora * Hawaiian Gardens * Hawthorne * Hermosa Beach * Hidden Hills * Huntington Park * Industry * Inglewood * Irwindale * La Cañada Flintridge * La Habra Heights * La Mirada * La Puente * La Verne * Lakewood * Lawndale * Lomita * Lynwood * Malibu * Manhattan Beach * Maywood * Monrovia * Montebello * Monterey Park * Norwalk * Palos Verdes Estates * Paramount * Pico Rivera * Rancho Palos Verdes * Redondo Beach * Rolling Hills * Rolling Hills Estates * Rosemead * San Dimas * San Fernando * San Gabriel * San Marino * Santa Fe Springs * Santa Monica * Sierra Madre * Signal Hill * South El Monte * South Gate * South Pasadena * Temple City * Vernon * Walnut * West Covina * West Hollywood * Westlake Village * Whittier

Unincorporated areas of Los Angeles are:
* Acton * Agoura * Agua Dulce * Alondra Park * Altadena * Antelope Acres * Athens * Avocado Heights * Baldwin Hills * Bassett * Big Mountain Ridge * Big Pines * Big Rock * Bouquet Canyon * Castaic * Castaic Junction * Charter Oak * Citrus * Cornell * Del Aire * Del Sur * Del Valle * Desert View Highlands * East Compton * East La Mirada * East Los Angeles * East Pasadena * East San Gabriel * Florence-Graham * Hacienda Heights * Juniper Hills * Kinneloa Mesa * La Crescenta-Montrose * Ladera Heights * Lake Hughes * Lake Los Angeles * Lennox * Leona Valley * Littlerock * Llano * Marina del Rey * Mayflower Village * North El Monte * Pearblossom * Quartz Hill * Rowland Heights * South San Gabriel * South San Jose Hills * South Whittier * Stevenson Ranch * Topanga * Val Verde * Valinda * Valyermo * View Park-Windsor Hills * Vincent * Walnut Park * West Athens * West Carson * West Compton * West Puente Valley * West Whittier-Los Nietos * Westmont * Willowbrook

Adjacent counties of Los Angeles are: * Ventura County, California - west * Kern County, California - north * San Bernardino County, California - east * Orange County, California - southeast

Marine Corps Base Camp Pendleton is the major West Coast base of the United States Marine Corps and serves as its prime amphibious training base. It is located in Southern California between the cities of Oceanside and San Clemente. The base was established in 1942 to train U.S. Marines for service in World War II. It is named after Marine General Joseph Henry Pendleton, who long advocated setting up a West Coast training base for the Marine Corps. Today it is the home to a myriad of Fleet Marine Force units including the 1st Marine Expeditionary Force and various training commands. The base's diverse geography, spanning over 125,000 acres (506 km²), plays host to year round training for Marines in addition to all other branches of the U.S. military. Amphibious and sea-to-shore training takes place at several key points along the base's 17 miles (27 km) of coastline. The main base is in the Mainside Complex, at the southeastern end of the base, and the remote northern interior is an impact area. Daytime population is around 100,000. Recruits from nearby Marine Corps Recruit Depot, San Diego spend a month on Pendleton's Edson Range receiving field training, and after graduating from boot camp return to the base's School of Infantry for further training. Camp Pendleton remains the last major undeveloped portion of the Southern California coastline, save for a few small state parks. In this way, it acts as a kind of buffer between Orange County, which is generally considered part of the Greater Los Angeles Area, and San Diego County, which generally is not. Camp Pendleton is located in Oceanside which is the third largest city in San Diego County, California. The city has a population of 173,303. Together with Vista and Carlsbad, it makes up the Tri-City area. The city is just south of U.S. Marine Corps Base Camp Pendleton, the busiest military base in the United States. Oceanside has grown massively from the 1970 census report of 45,000 people. Much of the city area was developed into single-family home tracts when real estate booms took place in the 1970s and 1980s. Since 1990, more commercial and industrial development diversified Oceanside's economic base, with another population boom ever since. According to the US census, Oceanside's continual growth will put the city population estimates above the 200,000 mark in 2010 or exceed 250,000 by the year 2020.

ABOUT ANDERSON WINDOWS: The privately owned business was founded in 1903 by Danish immigrant Hans Andersen and his family in Hudson, Wisconsin, where logs arrived via the St. Croix River. Today, Andersen Corporation is an international enterprise employing over 9,000 people at more than 20 locations with headquarters in Bayport, Minnesota, a 2.8 million-square-foot facility that covers 65 acres. Andersen annually manufactures more than six million wood windows and doors, with sales worldwide. At Andersen, we make the kind of windows and patio doors people like to have in their homes. But you don’t have to take our word for it. J.D. Power and Associates just rated Andersen “Among the best” for homeowner satisfaction. The J.D. Power and Associates 2007 Windows and Patio Doors Satisfaction Study measured customer satisfaction levels of 3,039 homeowners based on performance in six factors: * ordering and delivery * price competitiveness * operational performance * appearance and design features * operational features * warranty and replacement ANDERSON WINDOWS:Building in Quality for over 50 Years

ABOUT MILGARD WINDOWS: In 1958, Maurice Milgard, Jr. and his son Gary started Milgard Glass Company in a small building in Tacoma. Gary's brother, Jim, joined the company in 1961. Within a short time, the Milgards diversified into aluminum windows. In 1962, Gary Milgard left the glass company to start a new aluminum window fabricating company called Milgard Manufacturing. The company's objective from the start was to provide a reliable source of quality aluminum windows and doors. They had to be styled and crafted to meet the unique architectural requirements of the Western United States. Milgard's original commitment to quality and service has continued to be a key to the company's success.

Innovations in Aluminum and Vinyl Windows and Doors Drive Growth In 1968, Milgard Manufacturing started producing sliding glass doors. Two years later, aluminum frames were redesigned to fit both single-pane and insulating glass. The Milgards developed a type of aluminum frame that was suitable for cold weather areas where only wood frames had been effective. The year 1989 marked the introduction of the first Milgard windows with vinyl frames. WoodClad, a dramatic new line of fiberglass windows, was introduced in 1990. Growth is the norm at Milgard. In addition to the Tacoma operation, the company now has window manufacturing plants in Marysville, Washington; Portland, Oregon; Las Vegas, Nevada; Sacramento, Hollister, Simi Valley, Temecula and Dixon, California; Denver, Colorado; Salt Lake City, Utah; Phoenix, Arizona; Chicago, Illinois; and our latest plant in Fredericksburg, Virginia.

Expanding into Tempered Glass and Vinyl Extrusion In 1980, Milgard Tempering, Inc. was started in Tacoma to respond to a demand for high quality tempered glass in the Northwest. In 1992 a second Milgard Tempering plant was opened in Dixon, California. Modern equipment and skilled employees have enabled Milgard Tempering to become one of the most respected tempered glass suppliers in the country. Milgard Vinyl, located in Tacoma, began extruding quality frame material in 1988. A state-of-the-art extrusion and injection molding plant in Tacoma produces vinyl window and doorframe material and components for Milgard windows.

Employees Are the Key to Our Success Milgard's history of growth and success is due to the dedication of our employees. Our more than 4,500 employees work hard each day to deliver high quality products and superior customer service. In fact, both of these are so important to Milgard that they're part of the Milgard Corporate Philosophy. Milgard Philosophy In Order To Be 'Clearly The Best' In Our Business, We Are Committed To These Principles: * The Individual Must Be Respected. * The Customer Must Be Given The Best Possible Service. * Excellence And Superior Performance Must Be Pursued.

Whether you are buying windows or patio doors for your own home, a client's home, or a commercial project, get real peace of mind. Get Milgard. Milgard stands behind every window and patio door we build. Our warranty promises we will repair or replace any defective window, door or skylight free of cost to the original homeowner. Parts and labor included. Our warranty ranges from 10 years for commercial applications to a Full Lifetime Warranty for homeowners. It's no hassles, no hidden costs, and no headaches.


Copyright © 2008 Windows Doors Orange County
Many of our window and door customers come from the following areas and zipcodes:

Anaheim 92801, 92802, 92803, 92804, 92805, 92806, 92807, 92808, 92809, 92812, 92814, 92815, 92816, 92817, 92825, 92850, 92899, Brea 92821, 92822, 92823, Buena Park 90620, 90621, 90622, 90623, 90624, Costa Mesa 92626, 92627, 92628, Cypress 90630, Fountain Valley 92708, 92728, Fullerton 92831, 92832, 92833, 92834, 92835, 92836, 92837, 92838, Garden Grove 92840, 92841, 92842, 92843, 92844, 92845, 92846, Huntington Beach 92605, 92615, 92646, 92647, 92648, 92649, La Habra 90631, 90632, 90633, La Palma 90623, Los Alamitos 90720, 90721, Orange 92856, 92857, 92859, 92861, 92862, 92863, 92864, 92865, 92866, 92867, 92868, 92869, Placentia 92870, 92871, Santa Ana 92701, 92702, 92703, 92704, 92705, 92706, 92707, 92708, 92711, 92712, 92725, 92728, 92735, 92799, Seal Beach 90740, Stanton 90680, Tusin 92780, 92781, 92782, Villa Park 92861, 92867, Westminister 92683, 92684, 92685, Yorba Linda 92885, 92886, 92887
Aliso Viejo 92653, 92656, 92698, Dana Point 92624, 92629, Laguna Hills 92637, 92653, 92654, 92656, Laguna Niguel 92607, 92677, Laguna Woods 92653, 92654, Lake Forest 92609, 92630, Mission Viejo 92675, 92690, 92691, 92692, 92694, Newport Beach 92657, 92658, 92659, 92660, 92661, 92662, 92663, Rancho Santa Margarita 92688, San Clemente 92672, 92673, 92674, San Juan Capistrano 92675, 92690, 92691, 92692, 92693, 92694 Ladera Ranch 92694, Coto De Caza 92679 Anaheim Hills 92807, 92808, 92809, 92817 Dove Canyon 92679 and San Diego 92101, 92102, 92103, 92104, 92105, 92106, 92107, 92108, 92109, 92110, 92111, 92112, 92113, 92114, 92115, 92116, 92117, 92118, 92119, 92120, 92121, 92122, 92123, 92124, 92126, 92127, 92128, 92129, 92130, 92131, 92132, 92133, 92134, 92135, 92136, 92137, 92138, 92139, 92140, 92142, 92143, 92145, 92147, 92149, 92150, 92152, 92153, 92154, 92155, 92158, 92159, 92160, 92161, 92162, 92163, 92164, 92165, 92166, 92167, 92168, 92169, 92170, 92171, 92172, 92173, 92174, 92175, 92176, 92177, 92178, 92179, 92182, 92184, 92186, 92187, 92190, 92191, 92192, 92193, 92194, 92195, 92196, 92197, 92198, 92199

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